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الأربعاء، 29 يونيو، 2011

Tourism on the island of Madagascar

Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (with the old name Malagasy Republic), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa. The main island, also called Madagascar, is the fourth largest island in the world, and is home to 5% of plant and animal species in the world, including more than 80% settlement in Madagascar. Primates including lemurs, and Digger Alphusa eat meat, and three families of birds and six species of baobab. Thirds of the population of Madagascar lives below the international poverty line (less than $ 1.25 a day

As part of East Gondwana, Madagascar separated from Africa land for nearly 160 million years, and the island of Madagascar was created when it separated from the Indian sub-continent in 80 to 100 million years ago. Most archaeologists estimate that the human settlement of Madagascar happened between 200 and 500 AD, when the sailors from South East Asia (probably from Borneo or the southern Celebes) in the sailing.

Bantu settlers probably crossed the Mozambique Channel to Madagascar at about the same time, or shortly thereafter. However, Malagasy tradition of ethnic and evidence suggests that they may have preceded them fishermen groups Mika. Alontimoro who established a kingdom in southern Madagascar in the Middle Ages because of their origin to immigrants from Somalia.

Started writing the date in Madagascar in the seventh century, when Muslims established trading centers along the northwest coast. During the Middle Ages, the kings of the island began to expand their power through trade with their neighbors on the Indian Ocean, particularly the Arab traders, and the Persians and the Alsomaliaan who arrived in Madagascar, eastern Africa, the Middle East and large Hindamishaik begun to dominate large areas of the island.
 
  Including the Sakalava chiefdoms of Menabe, centered in what is now the town of Morondava, and Buena, centered in what is now the provincial capital of Mahajanga. The impact of Sakalava extended across what is now the provinces of Antsiranana, Mahajanga and Toliara.

  Madagascar was an important port for trade across the ocean to the coast of East Africa, which has given Africa a trade route on the Silk Road, at the same time worked as a port for ships to come

.Madagascar is divided into six autonomous provinces, divided into 22 provinces, and these areas have been created in 2004. Provincial level will be higher after the partition of the provinces and resolved according to the results of a referendum April 4, 2007, which means that by October 4, 2009.
 
The area of ​​Madagascar 587.000 sq km and thus the State is the forty-sixth in terms of area which is also the fourth largest island in the world. It is slightly larger than France, which is one of 11 separate province in the plateau of South Africa

.In the direction of the east, steep escarpment leads from the central highlands down into the bar of the rain forest with a narrow coast in the far east. Benjlanis channel is a series of natural and artificial lakes connected by channels that run along the east coast about 460 kilometers (285 miles) (about two thirds of the island). The slope of the central highlands toward the west is more gradual, with remnants of the seasonal forests and plains with savannah-like grass (which was in the south and south-west, which is hosting the dry grass and thorny plants desert baobab). On the west coast of many protected harbors, but the silt deposition is a major problem caused by sediment from the high levels of erosion in the direction of the ground.
 
On top of the hill is located the central highlands, a plateau region ranging in altitude from 2,450 to 4,400 feet (750 to 1350 meters) above sea level. Central Highlands is characterized by Bodian rice listed between barren hills. There the red laterite soil that covers a large part of the island has been exposed to erosion, showing clearly the reason for naming the country as the "red island

The highest peak on the island Maaromokotro at an altitude of 2876 meters, found in the mass Tsarattanana rock located in the far north of the country. Block Ankartara rock located in the downtown area south of the capital Antananarivo and the third highest mountain in the island, Tciafageoffohna, up 2.642 meters to the south lies the lump of rock Andranjetera and the tops of many higher than 2,400 meters, including Tharna and the fourth highest peak in Madagascar, Pic Aamarevolaila, known more widely to pick Bobby (2658 meters), and the summit of Peak Puri (2630 m) peaks again in this lump of rock include Beck Swandra (2620 meters ) and Evangomina Peak (2556 m) also contains this block is also protected in times of Andranjetera very rare snow fall on the area in winter because of the towering height.
 
There are two seasons: a hot rainy season from November to April and a cool, dry season from May to October. South East trade winds are prevailing in the country, was facing the island sometimes hurricanes

 Resulted in the isolation of Madagascar from the neighboring continents for a long time to a unique combination of plants and animals, many of which are found nowhere else in the world, some ecologists refer to Madagascar as a continent, "the eighth out of 10 000 plants endemic to Madagascar, 90% of them do not found nowhere else in the world of animal life and plant variety in Madagascar are at risk due to human activity, where one third of local agriculture have disappeared since the seventies, and 18% of which only remains intact since the arrival of humans 2,000 years ago, has lost Madagascar more than 90 % of the original forest birds, elephant, giant birds that were unable to fly to Madagascar, became extinct at least since the seventeenth century. was the largest bird in the world, is believed to exceed the length of three meters and has numerous national parks

About 50% of the country's population practice traditional religious rituals, which tend to emphasize the links between the living and the dead. Merina in the highlands particularly tend to maintain the ritual. They believe that the dead ancestors to participate in the ranks of divinity and that ancestors intensely interested in the fate of their children's births. Merina and reburial practice Albtselio famadihana, or "dead hand", and celebrate this spiritual communication. In this ritual, removed the remains of victims from the tomb of the family, and damage to the coffins of the new Silk, and returned to the grave after the ceremony in their honor in some cases, where they are raising the corpses and carry them high above the heads of revelers with singing and dancing before returning them to the grave.

 Despite the outrageous persecution and genocide of Lchristaan ​​during the nineteenth century in the reign of Queen Ranavalona First, about 45% of Madagascar's Christians today, this Alencih divided almost equally between Catholics and Protestants. Many people worship the dead integrates with other religious beliefs and bless their dead at church before proceeding with the burial rituals. They may also claim a Christian minister to attend famadihana. Many of the influential Christian churches in politics. The best example of this is the Council of the Churches of Madagascar (FFKM), which consists of the oldest and most prominent of four Christian denominations (Roman Catholic, Church of Jesus Christ in Madagascar, Lutheran and Anglican).

Islam in Madagascar is about 7% of the population. Arab traders and Somali Muslims are the first to bring Islam in the Middle Ages, and they had a profound impact on the West Coast. For example, many Malagasy converted to Islam for the first time turned to the Malagasy language alphabet, based on the Arabic alphabet and named Soraba. Muslims are concentrated in the provinces of Mahajanga and Antsiranana (Diego Suarez). Is divided between Muslims Malagasy ethnicity, Indians, Pakistanis and the inhabitants of the Comoros. The number of mosques in the south-eastern region of 10 to 50 mosques in the past ten Alokhirhovi Recently, several tribes converted to Islam in Madagascar on one occasion in the tribe in the south-east Antimor turned 17,500 to Islam at once