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الأربعاء، 29 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in Tunisia / Tunisia

Tunisia is a country located in North Africa, bounded on the north and east Mediterranean, and from Algeria to the west (965 km) from the south-east of Libya (459 km). Its capital city of Tunisia. The official name the Republic of Tunisia. The area of ​​the Republic of Tunisia 162.155 km 2 extends the Sahara on 30% of Tunisian territory while the rest of the area covered by fertile soil adjacent to the sea.
 
  Tunisia have played important roles in ancient history since the era of the Amazigh and the Phoenicians and Carthaginians were known as the province of Africa during the Roman rule. There has been wars between Carthage and Rome still to now one of the most important wars of the Old Testament as they were called to Rome was submerged provision of agricultural products. Saracens in the seventh century and founded the city of Kairouan, the year 50 AH to be the first Islamic city in North Africa

Come from the country label named its capital, which has the same name. And different views on the naming of this city. Some believe that the name of Tunisia due to the Phoenician era, as is usually called the city's main Bolehtha In the case of Tunisia is Tanit some Arab schools likely origin of the word to the roots of Arabic through the ancient city of Tarshish. It was likely some other origin of the word to the word TENCE described by Diodorus and Polybius, which seems to be described soon from the trachea on the outskirts of Tunis Haliaa also pointed Tunisian historian Abd al-Rahman Ibn Khaldun to the origin of the word "Tunisia", which was launched on the capital of North Africa, where attributed the origin to the so-called from the city of prosperity and vitality of urban economic, cultural and social mobility

 He noted that the name of "Tunisia" is derived from the description of its population and expatriates on for they knew its good intercourse, hospitality, and hospitality and there interpretation is that the floor of the trunk did Anas Amazigh, which means spend the night with the change of meaning in time and space, may be the word Tunisia took the meaning of camp for the night, or camp, or a place to stop. There are written references from the ancient civilization ROMANIAN remember the names of nearby cities such as Toniza (now El Kala), Tonsody (now Sir poor), Tnsot (currently well Borkbh), Tunisian (currently top of the mountain). Since each of these villages were located on Romanian roads, it was undoubtedly used as a station to stop and rest
 
Renamed the country in the Latin languages​​, to which it adds ia such as English has evolved from a designation of French historians and geographers, who called her Tunisie-ia,. In the early 19th century as part of their efforts to give the names of the territories that were occupied by France. Tunisie word derived from the French adopted by some European languages​​, with some minor modifications, which produced the distinguished name of the country. Some other languages ​​did not change much Arabic name, eg naming the Russian Tunisia Тунис (Tu 'age) and the Spanish label Túnez

Tunisia lies between latitudes 30 ° Ataiwa and 14 minutes, and 37 ° and 13 minutes north of the equator and between longitudes 7 ° and 32 minutes and 11 ° and 36 minutes east of Greenwich line
 
North coast that is characterized by a high rocky depths of sea adjacent to the winding creeks and wide Kkhalaj Tunisia and capital good head following a narrow coastal plains of the coast to the mountains from the sea, approaching the east coast is a low sandy coast of the few Altaarig bays wide Kkhalaj bathrooms and the islands of Djerba and Kerkennah

· A series of mountains and one of the highest mountains of the Atlas series of marine yeast
· Along the hills of the Golan Ctoot in Algeria, ending sandy plains where the Shatt al-Gazette
Tunisia's surface consists of coastal plains that stretch along the coast overlooking the sea on the Mediterranean and expand in the middle, the southern regions is an extension of the Algerian desert. Desert covers the southern half of the territory of Tunisia. Valley is an abstract of the country's largest rivers
 .The country is divided into three major areas
· The hill top, which covers the north.
· The middle of Tunisia, where the high-and low deserts, which ends at the east coast.
· Interior region bounded by the Shatt al-palm leaves to the north, and is characterized by the vast desert Rabua Bmessahadtha Buahadtha singing and wrapped around a small number of sources of water.
Tunisia is located in the southernmost point in the north of the African continent, a top bin Railway
In Tunisia, three varieties of climates:
1. Mediterranean climate in the north than the amount of rainfall 400 mm per year
2. Semi-arid climate in the middle range where rainfall amounts between 200 and 400 mm
3. Dry climate in the south where rainfall less than 200 mm per year
Tunisia's oldest civilizations known prehistoric Oargaha, and on the extent of each pre-historic times:

 · Paleolithic bottom and extends to hundreds of thousands of years.
The first round saw him to the emergence of stones or gravel, put up by humans for use as a weapon for hunting or cutting wood. I have found such tools in several areas in Tunisia oldest site named Prempeh near the tribal south of Tunisia where he found the pieces of stones round carved along with the bones of animals extinct elephant giant has as much history, including nearly two million years and found the stones put up in other sites including the Palace touch Bmatmdah Oueslatia well in rural Tunisia and north Borkbh Nabeul Tunisia

 In the second round of antiquity down and know the role of Acholi, there have been tools more accurate and sophisticated which is about axes hand, were found on such instruments in several locations, both in the south in the kinky and the reserve and Gafsa, or center-aligned on the banks of the Valley of gypsum, not far from the town of Ela from the state of Kairouan, in the north: the site is far from well Borkbh at another site not far from the town of Bir Masharqa from the state of Zaghouan and return the tools to more than 100 thousand years in the north-west, is the site of Sidi Zein, which lies about 10 km from the city of El Kef the most important site pre-historic as it was found about 800 artifacts, along with animal bones dating back to between 80 thousand and 100 thousand years

 Paleolithic East extends to the period between 80 thousand and 35 thousand years BC. M. And return to this era several locations, including Sidi Mansour, near Gafsa, appointed Mthrschm near Kasserine and appointed Mgueth South Nasrallah from the state of Kairouan, the most important sites: the Valley Alacarit, 30 km north of the city of Gabes, where he found a large amount of tools, granite, and the bones different animals but the most important archaeological site dates back to this period is the site of the train and the most important detected which is a pile of stones river and the bones of various animals and fragments of flint in a conical shape with a diameter of 140 cm and a height of 75 cm, and believes that the intent of this form is to establish a religious ritual

 Alqbesah spread of civilization on multiple sites in rural western Tunisia and Algeria, and aged between 7 thousand and 5 thousand years BC. M. Saw the first manifestations of human societies organized in the region, where I discovered the effects of fishermen Almmeltkotain has Alqbesaon, in the Neolithic period, from 6.500 years before present, domesticated sheep, goats and Althiathel and grazing them, as well as they continue to hunt other animals, as it is Alqbesaon the first pastoralists in the history of humanity. Some research has shown that some communities Alqbesah has a kind of primitive agriculture.

  He also Alqbesaon since 7.000 years before present, the pottery industry, they have developed in the Neolithic period, from 6.200 years before present, making pottery spire rule: bottles, pottery with a conical shape without ties of pots and pottery-based semi-conical, and others. They have also the use of cobalt in the manufacture of ostrich eggs pots: oval shape bottles and cups and cups and dishes. This is in addition to what is found from the manufacture of stone tools and Menacht sharp chisels and blades of different shapes for the housing, the housing rights Alqbesa huts made ​​of tree branches, and housing sponsors caves in the mountains
 .In about 3000 or 2000 BC. M. Leaked to the country of Tunisia characteristics of the civilization of the Covenant Albornza, has used the stones large or Agheiran rock that remained of several effects such as those found area Makthar northwestern Tunisian As a human, is considered the Amazigh population indigenous to the country of Tunisia, but they witnessed the arrival of waves of another human because of the importance of strategic location in the Mediterranean and the ease of terrain, and in this framework provided the Phoenicians of the Levant and the credit is up to them to enter the country of Tunisia and the rest of North Africa in the history of the State of Carthage Btacishm

Who set up the country's population of Tunisian commercial relations with Phoenicians since the 11th century BC. M. Where the establishment of these ports for the exchange of goods is often based on barter. Utica is the most important of these ports and was the founding of Carthage as a military base to protect the commercial ports on the west coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Following the strikes that broke out in Vinkie a group of traders to flee to Carthage and stability Vehau merged with the indigenous Berbers and formed the so-called Balqirtagiyn hailed the form of the Amazigh Aktar 70% of the Carthaginians, but historical novels about the establishment of the city closer to myth than fact, sometimes

Founded city of Carthage in the north-east of Tunisia, the current in 814 BC and the beginning of Carthage after the center of the empire took control of North Africa and southern Europe over time weakened the Empire Phoenician trading and inherited Carthage glories and its colonies, and has expanded its turf to include a large part of the coast of the Mediterranean, due to its strategic location and overlooking the Mediterranean basins, has been able to extend its influence and control the movement of trade did not have to obtain consent of the superpower that. Carthaginian expansion in the form of a threat to the interests and influence of the Greeks, which led to military clashes between the two countries.
 
Settled Islam in the region after three breakthroughs in a row I knew a lot of resistance from the Berber while did not express the peoples of the region only after the long centuries and return basis expresses the region to the delegations of the families and the Arab tribes, especially with migration between the moon and built properly from the southern Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf up to date so balanced demographic a new element known predominance of the Arab

The first invasions year 647 AD and is known to open Abadleh because the pimp with the name Abdullah, and ended with death of the Byzantine ruler. The second campaign took place years 661 AD and ended in control of the city of Bizerte. The third and decisive campaign was led by a bin Nafi 'in 670 AD was the founding of the city of Kairouan, which later became an outpost of the subsequent campaigns in Africa and Andalusia. However, the killing of a bin Nafi year 683 AD almost fails campaign and forced the invaders to the fourth and final campaign, led by Hassan Al-Nu'man year 693 AD confirmed the control of African Muslims, despite fierce resistance led by the priestess of the Amazigh. And has control of Carthage AD 695 years and despite some victories for the Berbers and the Byzantines to recover Carthage year AD 696 the Muslims finally took control of the city in 698 and killed the priestess in the same year

 Not recovered Carthage prestige after that was replaced after the port of Tunis near which was the center of the start of invasions in the sea off Sicily and southern Italy was not satisfied by new invaders to control the coasts, but moved by road and spread their faith among the Berbers, who have become since then the spearhead in the conquest and subsequent private in Andalusia, under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad.
 
Contains the city of Kairouan, many of the learning centers of Islam except that after the East African cradle of religion and the center of government led to the spread of Islamic sects that do not belong to the Sunnis, particularly outside of thought

Remained Kairouan, capital of the mandate of an African state Umayyad until 750 AD and then the Abbasid state region has not seen a ruling independent but under the leadership of Ibrahim Bin mostly the founder of the majority decision of Harun al-Rashid year 800 AD and who wanted it put close to the mini-states deployed in West Africa where the spread thought the outside. Aghlabid ruled 100 years and which cultural life flourished and became a center of Kairouan same period also saw the establishment of a strong naval fleet to repel foreign attacks, which enabled the Assad Ibn Furat later to open the island of Sicily.
 
Agriculture recorded a high percentage, which enabled the country to reach a sufficient level of food security. Although the development of other sectors of the Tunisian economy, the agriculture Hafedt the importance of social and economic terms of providing 12% of the gross domestic product and occupies 16% of the workforce in 2006 the most important agricultural products are grain (wheat and barley), olives (the fourth product third source Aalmiwaltmor and citrus fruits, livestock and products sea. State is acting in the sector in the majority of its branches through its institutions, but it should be noted Dhour private gatherings especially in the food industry, the most important group Paulina
 . The population of Tunisia, according to the latest estimate published by the National Institute of Statistics in surprise July 2008 10.0005 million thousand and 800 people spread over 24 states with an estimated number of Tunisians abroad to 975 million people, according to figures dating back to 2007. The majority of Tunisians from the race, High as the majority of the population of assets Berber and Andalusian Marbhomen Turks, Sicilians, who flocked to the country in the periods Tarkhih posting program with some black. The number of population of the country's major development since independence, thanks to improved living standards and lower infant mortality rate but the rate of growth of population has seen a continuous decline in recent years, 2.66% in 1975, then 2.58 in 1984, then 1.7 in 1994 to reach 0.989% 2008, the lowest in the Arab world by Lebanon.
 
  Muslims account for the vast majority of the population with the presence of Christian and Jewish minorities small provided later and have always lived in peace with Muslims. Tunisia is a Mediterranean homogeneous as Muslims account for 98% of the population, generating a strong national Antmea the Tunisians in the absence of ethnic and sectarian tendencies, although it is multi-ethnic country. The composition of the population now is a mix of Arabs and Berbers, Phoenicians, and the Europeans, Africans and Turks, Romans, Andalusians

The Berbers were the first inhabitants of the country, but the most visible point in the history of Tunisia is the ancient Phoenicians in the delegations, which they founded Carthage in the ninth century by century. The Romans took control of North Africa until the fifth century, which saw the fall of the Romanian Empire, then the ethnic groups to Tunisia, the most important European Vandals. In the eighth century the Muslim Arabs invaded the country was followed by the coming of a large number of Arab tribes and families to take the composition of the country Mniz its current form. The country also saw thousands of Andalusians and delegations
Who have taken refuge after being driven to it by the Christians as defined beginning of the sixteenth century settlement of a large number of Turkish families.
 
Nearly all Tunisians (99%), Muslim) 85% of them years of followers of the Maliki school and 15% of the Hanafi school and there is a minority worship services and there Elsafrion with 2,000 Jews on the island of Jerba, Tunisia, according to sources Tunisian and 1500 according to Jewish sources, Jewish Tunis came from Spain in the late fifteenth century AD, after the persecution by the Spaniards

But the Jews of Djerba came from the Levant after the burning of their temple by Nebuchadnezzar 2,500 years ago although there are no official figures count the number of Christians in Tunisia there are about 50,000 Christian residents are from the pro-French Tunisia and the Tunisian assets of Italian, French and Maltese 80% of them Catholics It is older and residing in Tunis and Sfax. There are a small number of Orthodox (including passenger Russian ship journey to Bizerte France during World War II Adaafah to some of the immigrants from Greece) and a minority Protestant living in Djerba

 Speak Tunisian Arabic Tunisian dialect, a dialect of the words entered many languages, Turkish, Italian, French, largely due to considerations of its history dates back to centuries, 18 and 19. Italian has a strong presence in the Tunisian dialect through the vocabulary is rooted in the immigrants from Sicily. Happened in the history of the integration of the most important Tunisian dialect words were added when the Andalusian (Spanish for now) after the expulsion of Moors from Andalusia between the 17th and 18th centuries.
 
Arabic is the official language while French is the language of business and management de facto. As well as the vocabulary of ancient Amazigh are still several areas of Tunisia speak Amazigh Matmata on the island of Djerba (in Agim, Guellala, and Sdoeksh Orcign) and Chenini Tataouine In Aldoarat

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