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الثلاثاء، 28 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in the Sultanate of Brunei

Brunei (Balmalaio: Negara Brunei Daroslam, Paljawih: Brunei Darussalam), formally known as the Brunei Darussalam, Brunei or nation or the land of peace, is a state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Brunei is divided into two zones separated by the town of Mbang of the State of Sarawak of Malaysia, which takes full Brunei Brunei exception of the northern coast, overlooking the South China Sea. Brunei is the only independent on the island of Borneo, where Malaysia and Indonesia share the rest of the island

The emergence of Brunei back to the seventh century AD, when the state of the Kingdom of Srivijaya under the name 'Bonnie' became later a vassal of the empire Madjapahi before embracing Islam in the fifteenth century. During the height of its empire along, extended to include the control of the Sultanate of coastal areas of what is known in these days Bsraouk, Sabah and the Sulu Archipelago and the islands off the northwest tip of the island of Borneo. Ferdinand Magellan visited this country in the Navy in 1521 and fought in the war of Spain Castile in 1578. Empire began to retreat after forcing her to cede Sarawak to James Brooke and the waiver of the morning the company registered the British North Borneo.

 After losing to Ambang, Brunei became a British protectorate in 1888, then British Governor set up by the year 1906. After the Japanese occupation of the country, announced that Brunei's new constitution and fought an armed revolution, and then regained its independence from the United Kingdom in the first of January 1984. Economic growth during the seventies and nineties, which reached an average of 56% between 1999 and 2008, to transform the country into modern industrial state.
 
Brunei occupies second place in the human development index, after Singapore, between the countries of Southeast Asia, and is classified as a developed nation, according to the International Monetary Fund, Brunei occupies the fourth place in terms of GDP per capita in purchasing power parity
 
The Ong Alec Bettatr the establishment of Brunei, where the move from Garang to the mouth of the river of Brunei to the discovery of Brunei, where legend has it that he exclaimed, saying, 'Pro Naa' (that is, "Great!" Or "Excellent!" In Arabic) When the inn on the beach, and so derived name of Brunei

Was renamed the state to "Paronaa" in the fourteenth century, perhaps influenced by the word "Varunaa" Sanskrit (वरुण) which means "sailors" to become later on "Brunei", and that the name of Borneo has the same origin. In the name of the state's official "Negara Dar es Salaam", the Negara means "country" Malay language, which is also derived from the word "Najara" Sanskrit (नगर), which means "City of

The magnitude of the Sultanate of Brunei peak between centuries XIV and XVI is believed that the Sultanate's influence spread to the coastal areas where lies what is known in these days and Bsraouk morning, and the Sulu archipelago, the islands adjacent to the southwest side of the island of Borneo. There is disagreement about the period in which the income of Islam to Brunei for the first time, a number of effects suggest that Islam has been practiced in the island since the twelfth century AD. Among the monuments tombstones found in the tombs of several Islamic in Brunei, especially the tombstone found in cemetery Ranjaas of Chinese Muslims named Bo Qing Xu Minh City, where he was buried there year 1264, this was a hundred years ago to convert to Ong Alec Bettatar of Islam, which later became Muslim Sultan Muhammad Shah, the first Sultan of Brunei
. "Bu" is the name of a Chinese family, according to Chinese historians, it distinguishes theholder as a Muslim. According to the tombstone, the King, Bo Xu Minh feet from the Chinese city of Kwangju. During Singh's dynasty was the Persians and Arab traders who travel to Canton(Kwangju) in the territory Koonjtnj, and Xuan Xu in the province of Fujian. But the tomb of Poe, but Shaw Minh is not the only tomb of a Muslim Chinese in a cemetery Ranjaas, there is a graveadjacent to the Chinese Muslim last name Li Xia Zhu of City Link launched (Vukian) who died in1876 and 'Link to launch' is the other city was Arab merchants traveling to constantly.

 According to the records of the Chinese mentioned in the book "Notes on the archipelago of Malaya and the Queen collected from Chinese sources," written by William Peter Gronfelt year 1880, has reached a merchant and diplomat, a Chinese Muslim, named Bo him Shi, which is similar to the name (Abu Laith), to Brunei in the tenth century AD. At the time, received by the King of Brunei Hyang Ta (Punjto) Trader - Chinese diplomatic official ceremony is great. This is proof that Islam entered the Brunei Year 977. One may argue that the trader - the Chinese diplomat has brought with him nothing but some gifts and greetings from the Emperor of China, but it is interesting that the King of Brunei has sent a delegation to China to respond to the emperor the duty of greeting, was chaired by the delegation Muslim named Bo Ali (Abu Ali).

Based on this information, the Abu Ali has held an important post in the government of Brunei since he was Brunei's Ambassador to China. While the King was not a Muslim at the time, a number of members of the royal court were Muslims. Claimed a number of historians Arubans that Brunei did not become a Muslim country, until the fifteenth century, but the reference to Chinese (Ming Shih, book 325), said that the King of Brunei in 1370 was Mahumusa, and some say that this name should be read Kmahmod Shah. But local historians say that Brunei is the real name of Muhammad Shah, the first Muslim Sultan of Brunei, where merchants were Arabs and the Persians and the Sindhi visiting Brunei during his reign.

   However, Nicole Robert, who was director of the Museum of Brunei, argued in a paper entitled 'Notes on some controversial issues in the history of Brunei' that the name may be pronounced Mahumusa quantity Moxa, which means 'the great eternity', which makes him a Buddhist name. Nicole argues that the Sultan of Brunei, who died in Nanjing year 1408 was not a Muslim. But historians say that the Sultan of Brunei Brunei second was a Muslim named Abdul Majid Hassan.

 According to historians of Brunei, the Sultan Mohammed Shah, who converted to Islam in 1376 and sentenced to the year 1402. After that, ascended to the throne of Sultan Abdul Majid Hassan, and his reign visited the Chinese Muslim explorer marine Geng Brunei several times. It is likely that there are two waves of Islamic teachings, which were submitted to Brunei, where she made first by traders from the Arabian Peninsula, Persia, India and China. The second wave Vhaddtt After the conversion of Sultan Muhammad Shah of Islam, and with the second wave, Islam spread rapidly in Brunei.

  Led by Sharif Ali, who return attributed to the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him through his grandsons Hassan and Hussein, may Allah be pleased with them, the spread of Islam in Brunei, where he arrived Sharif Ali Brunei coming from Taif, and soon only a short time before to marry the daughter of Sultan Ahmed. Sharif has to build a mosque in Brunei, and the relationship was established between him and a number of advocates of Islam in the region, such as Malik Ibrahim, who went to Java and Sharif Zainal Abidin in his kingdom and Sharif Abu Bakr al-Sharif in Sulu and in Mindanao Kibenj Swan.

 Sharif Ali became the sultan of Brunei after he took over from his father, and knew the title of 'Sultan blessing' for memories of his piety and righteousness. Sultan Ali was the preaching of the people in Friday prayers, but it was not authority, but was also aware of the people of Brunei imam of the Islamic religion.

  According to Thomas Stamford Raffles, in his book "History of Java", the activities of the Islamic Sultan Ali were not limited to Brunei, but also extended to Java, where the call of Islam, known there as "Raja Hrmen", also called Prabhu Anka and Jaya King empire Mjabhit of Islam. Sultanate of Brunei's efforts led to the call of Islam to the spread of Islam outside the island of Borneo, until they reached the islands of the Philippines, South Korea. However, when the Portuguese landed Malaga 1511, Brunei has played a key role in spreading Islam in the region

 Entrench Islam in Brunei in the sixteenth century, and a girl of Brunei's largest mosques in 1578,which he visited the Spanish traveler Olnso Beltran, describing it as a five-storey building on the water. It is likely that the five-story symbolized the five pillars of Islam. In June of the same year, the Spanish destroyed the mosque.
European influence led to the elimination of Brunei as a regional power, where Brunei fought a brief war with Spain, which the Spaniards occupied the capital of Brunei, but the war ended with the victory despite the loss of Brunei for a number of its territory. The Sultanate of Brunei reached the peak of its weakness in the nineteenth century, when Brunei lost most of its white rulers of the kings of Sarawak, which is why in the fact that Brunei is a small area and is divided into two separate areas. Brunei became a British protectorate in 1888 until the year 1984, and occupied by Japan between 1941 and 1945 during World War II. I got a mini-revolution against the monarchy in 1960, they put out with the assistance of the United Kingdom, and knew this event a revolution Brunei. Revolution was one of the reasons for the failure of federal northern Borneo, also influenced in part by Brunei's decision to withdraw from the Malaysian federal

Brunei Darussalam consists of two parts with a total area of 5766 km2 (2226 square miles). Live 77% of the population in the eastern part of Brunei, while about 10,000 people live in the mountainous south-eastern (Region Timborong). The total population of 428 000 (2010), 130.000 of them live in the capital Bandar Seri Pkawan

Other major cities are the port city of Muara and the oil-producing city, Syria and its neighboring village, Kuala Belait. There is uttered from the territory of Belet Banga large numbers of expatriates due to the Centre of Royal Dutch Shell facilities and housing and entertainment of the British Army. Park is located Gerodong which is very famous amusement park in the west of Bandar Sri Pkawan. Brunei is located within the territory of most of the lowland rainforest ecosystem of Borneo, which covers most of the island, but there are also areas of mountainous rainforest interior

Climate of the country is the climate of tropical rainforest. Average annual temperature is 27.1 C (80.8 F) with an average April / April - May / May 27.7 Celsius (81.9 Fahrenheit) and the average October / October - December / December 26.8 Celsius (80.2 Fahrenheit

Brunei Darussalam launched in July 2009 planned national brand, "Brunei Halal", which allows manufacturers in Brunei and other countries use a Brunei old business to help them to penetrate the lucrative markets in countries where large numbers of Muslim consumers.

  Based on the perception of the use of the Sultanate of Brunei old brand to consumers to ensure Muslims corporate compliance with laws relating to the strict Islamic teachings. Brunei is also aimed at building confidence in the brand through strategies that will ensure the safety of halal products and compliance with strict rules governing the sourcing of raw materials and manufacturing processes, logistics and distribution.

Believed that the old brand of Brunei is the first successful attempt to mark the old global brand that will reap the commercial revenue potential by meeting the needs of Muslim consumers in the world. Established a new company owned by the Government of Brunei as abundant as the Holding Her brand of Brunei Halal. Abundant entered into a joint venture with the Brunei Islamic International Investment Company and Kerry Logistics Co., Ltd. based in Hong Kong for the formation of Al Ghanim International Food. Al Ghanim International regulate the use of brand Brunei halal. Required producers wishing to use the brand to get first on the old mark of Brunei (or a certificate of conformity manufacturing and slaughter of the assets of Shariah) through the Ministry of Islamic Affairs of the Halal Food Control Section. They can then contact Ghanem for the brand