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الثلاثاء، 28 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in Istanbul / Turkey

Istanbul (pronounced [ʔist ˤ ɑmbu ː l], Turkic-modern: İstanbul; and Ottoman Turkish: Istanbul [istambul]), and is historically known as Byzantium, Constantinople, Istanbul and Aslambol is the largest city in Turkey and the fifth largest city in the world in terms of population, with a population of 12.8 million people, is the Istanbul also "big city" and are seen as the center of Turkey's cultural, economic and financial
 
. The city covers an area of ​​39 districts of Istanbul is a province of Istanbul on the Bosphorus and surrounded the natural harbor known as the "Golden Horn" (in Turkish: Haliç or Altın Boynuz) located in the northwest. The city stretches along the European side of the Bosphorus Strait, known as "Thrace" and the Asian side, or "Anatolia" and, therefore, the only city in the world located on two continents

 This was the capital city for a number of nations and empires throughout its long history, was the capital of the empire Romanian (330-395), the Byzantine Empire (since even in 395 in 1204 and then from year 1261 until the year 1453), the Latin Empire (1204-1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453-1922 in most of these stages, was the city an aura of holiness, as it had a religious significance significant at the population and residents of neighboring states, was an important city for Christians having converted to the Byzantine Empire, the Christian religion, before it turns to become the capital of the Islamic caliphate in 1517 until dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1924
 
Istanbul was chosen as the capital of a common European culture in 2010, and the historical landmarks have been added before, in 1985, to the list of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO

 Shown digging a tunnel through the establishment of Marmara, which will arrive between European and Asian part of Istanbul, ancient human settlement from the Neolithic period, under the port of "Winnie Kaپa" (in Turkish: Yenikapı). Studies have shown that the colony back to the seventh millennium BC, before that consists of the Bosphorus, and this indicates that the Istanbul peninsula was inhabited since the period is much older than previously thought, and effects found in the primitive colony, a number of tools and crafts used in everyday life

The tribes Altracah in the period between centuries XIII and atheist century BC, the establishment of colonies, namely: "to Aaگos" and "Seemstra" in the "palace" the current (in Turkish: Sarayburnu) near the Topkapı Palace On the Asian side, was found the craftsmen at the site where there was a town of "Chalcedon" old, dating back to the Copper Age has the town of the above in this place at the hands of settlers, Greeks came from the city of "Megara" in 685 BC. m, and the Phoenicians had preceded them to this site since the beginning of the first millennium BC, where they founded the first commercial plant them in that country

The actual start date of Istanbul, according to many historians, about in 660 BC., When the settlers Almigarrion, under the leadership of their own "pizzas," founded the city of Byzantium on the European side of Bosphorus. By the end of the century, the population had founded the city of high bunker in the "palace", in the same area that were built enclaves "to Aaگos" and "Seemstra", ie where the Topkapı Palace and Hagia Sophia, now the city was besieged by the Roman Emperor, "Septimus Severus "in 196, having joined hands with the governor of Syria" Gaius Bsasenyos Naijir "who had revolted against the empire and later defeated, and suffered extensive damage as a result. Re Patriarch "Severus of Antioch" at Byzantium after the devastation as a result of the Roman siege, and soon the city regained its glory and prosperity of the past, after the Emperor called for a brief period the name "Ogusta Antonina" after his son

  The geographical location of Byzantium may draw the attention of Constantine I in 324, after he claimed that he had seen a dream prophetically showed the site of the city; Historians say that the real reason behind the claim of Constantine in this prophecy, is a victory critical to the Emperor "ڤalarius Licinius" in the battle Oscudar on the Strait of Bosphorus on September 18 year 324, a battle that ended the civil war between the emperors of subscribers to the sentence, and spent the final remnants of "a system of government the people the four", in the period in which the city of "Nicomedia" (Greek: Νικομήδεια), known as the "Izmit" is currently , the oldest and most Romanian cities affair and after the battle of six years, ie in 330, officially became the new capital of the Byzantine empire's Romanian, and changed its name to "Constantinople" any "city of Constantine."

 After the death of the Emperor "Theodosius I" the year 395, the empire permanently divided between his sons, Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine or Eastern Empire. Was the site of Constantinople between the continents of Europe and Asia, in addition to being home to one of the most important strains of ownership at the time, has made ​​it a hub for international trade, and cultural center and a great civilization in the region.

  The Byzantine Empire, Greek culture is clearly no doubt, and later became the backbone of the nation's Christian Roman Orthodox, it was natural, therefore, that adorn the capital, many of the churches, the great global importance, such as the Hagia Sophia, which was the largest cathedral in the world until the Islamic conquest of the city is still the headquarters of the Patriarch of Constantinople, spiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church, located in the province of "Lighthouse" from Istanbul

 Istanbul is located in north-west Marmara region in Turkey, which is divided into two parts separated by the Bosphorus Strait, which makes the city lies on two continents at once, which is located in the western part of Europe, while the eastern section is located in Asia. Occupies an area of ​​the city limits of 1,830.93 square kilometers (707 square miles), while running the assembly area or urban Istanbul province, an area of ​​6.220 square kilometers (2402 square miles).
 
Istanbul is located near the North Anatolian fault, which runs from northern Anatolia, and down to the Sea of ​​Marmara where the clash of African and Eurasian plates to each other all the time. This caused the fault with many of the devastating earthquakes of the region throughout history In 1509 a massive earthquake caused a huge tsunami wave crossed the sea walls of the city and destroyed more than 100 mosques and eliminated 10,000 people from the population. In 1766, damaged the mosque of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, largely due to strong earthquake

 There was also an earthquake in 1894 led to the collapse of many sections of the large covered market. On 17 August 1999, an earthquake had its focus in the nearby city of Izmit, and led to the deaths of 18,000 people and displaced many of the results were disastrous for all these earthquakes dating back to the intensity and Trass buildings and construction conditions of the poor. Seismologists say the possibility of another earthquake, Mkiesh up to 7.0 degrees, by the year 2025.

Prevail Istanbul temperate climate like all around the Marmara region, but because of the location of the city distinctive, the climate is considered a "climate transition," They are located in the middle between the regions with oceanic climate on the Black Sea, the climate is humid continental private peninsula, the Balkans, the Mediterranean climate.

 This diversity was reflected in the climatic patterns of plant diversity, since different types of plants and trees unique to each area on the unit as a whole can be found in this region, and province of Istanbul is one of the few provinces in Turkey, which highlights where this feature. Can be found on the large numbers of plants Alawroseperia environmental area in the northern part of the city in particular, on the coast of the Black Sea, where it is continuously wet climate. The Mediterranean vegetation, spreading in the southern regions, particularly in the Princes' Islands, which is the only region of Istanbul, which is dominated by this type of plant

The humid forest temperate broadleaf and mixed Biomes basic and dominant in the peninsula of Istanbul, and these forests are part of the system, Balkan mixed forests, which belong to the area of environmental Alawroseperia located in the Northern Territory the old one. Experts say the Directorate General for Forestry of Turkey, that 44% of the forest-clad province of Istanbul

 .Istanbul Jhettiha challenge of Asian and European Gaptin Rdobtin single-sex Kadimte the Covenant, known as the Asian jungle as "Forest Omadag," The European forest defines as "a forest of Belgrade," and these are the lungs of the city and Algabtan Mtnevsha Statute. Can still be found on the age-old forest in the heart of Istanbul today, and that on the banks of the Bosphorus. Oak is the most common tree species in the city and its surroundings, and from the 3 types common to a large extent, namely, English Oak, oak Allati, and Hungarian oak. It is also common beech trees, which spread east in the northern areas near the coast of the Black Sea.

 Istanbul superior to some European countries, such as the United Kingdom, in terms of plant diversity, including that in which nearly 2,500 of my kind of trees and plants. Add to this, that this view that the city is home to one quarter of municipal plant species ten thousand deployed in Turkey, and some of these species is limited in its existence on this city only, without other parts of the world

Istanbul is characterized by its temperate climate, although they occur in the area of ​​climatic transition between any areas where oceanic climate and the areas dominated by Mediterranean climate. Is often a hot summer in Istanbul and humidity levels are high, and temperatures in the months of July and August to about 28 ° C (82 ° F). The Vbard winter, humid and often fall through the snow, and the average temperature in this chapter to 5 ° C (41 ° F). In spring and autumn the weather moderated some of the falling rain sporadic, but the climate in this period remains somewhat stable during the day, it is possible that the shift from cold to warm one day and another, the nights always cool Vtkon Overall

 Always be the city's high humidity, which makes one feel that the air was heavy on the self. The percentage of moisture annual Istanbul to 72%, since it is located in the second-most moisture in Turkey, the rate of precipitation per year to 843.9 mm (33 inches and the number of days that rainfall of 152 days is summer more seasons of the year drought, but it is possible that peppered with some rainy days, and summer rains are sporadic but heavy in most cases.
 
Istanbul claimed throughout its long history it is notorious that site a fusion of different cultures and races. As a result, can be found now on the number of mosques, churches, temples, palaces, castles, and towers in the historic city, which was built in different stages of time at the hands of the people and multiple people. Some of these features attracted millions of tourists to Istanbul every year, has become an important symbol of the city

 The Princes' Islands, located in the Marmara Sea south of my part "punishment" and "Pendik," destination landmark for tourists, and the fact that it contains some of the factors of polarization of the asylum of comfort and relaxation, such as palaces, Ottoman Empire based on the traditional style of modern and model of new art, which was the sultans Aljoon it to rest from the fatigue of governance during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Polarization factors and also horse-drawn carts, as the car is not allowed its presence to any of those islands, and specialty restaurants offer seafood. Can reach these islands using ferries or buses, marine highways. The number of Princes Islands 9 islands, 5 of which are inhabited

 Istanbul in the number of shopping centers of historical, from the lines of: the large covered market (1461), market Mahmud Pasha (1462), and the Egyptian market or market pepper (1660). Opened the first modern shopping center in the city in 1987, which is "Exhibition Village Father" (in Turkish: Galleria Ataköy), followed by the opening of a large number of centers in the subsequent years, such as "White Center" (in Turkish: Akmerkez) in 1993, a commercial center only which won two awards "Best shopping center in Europe" and "the best shopping center in the world," granted by the international Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC); Shopping Center Metro City); Center Şişli cultural and commercial (2005), the largest shopping centers in Europe; Center Canyon Shopping (2006), who won the award for best architecture for the year 2006. In Istanbul, two trade centers dedicated to consumers with high wages, are the center Astnyh Park (2007) and the Center Nishan Tashi (2008), where displays only two items and brands are expensive

Spread in Istanbul, European and several restaurants as well as an East Asian restaurants and other local restaurants that offer various types of international cuisine dishes. Most of the pubs and bars in the city's historic Beyoğlu hand the surrounding areas of Independence Avenue. At the Avenue of the above gallery of historical famous so-called "corridor Flowers" (in Turkish: Çiçek Pasajı) when the number of bars and restaurants, and date back to create this corridor to the nineteenth century, and that by the Engineer Greek "Christakis Zogravos Effendi", which was built on the ruins of the "theater of Noam ", opened in 1876. In the same area is also located street "Naڤesidh" The restaurants are adjacent to each other.

Can be found on other historic pubs in the surrounding areas, "Crossing the tunnel" and "Street Mosque vine." Has returned the competent authorities to revive some old neighborhoods surrounding the Avenue of Independence in recent years, with varying degrees of success; One of these neighborhoods, "Algeria Street" (in Turkish: Cezayir Sokağı) located near the secondary Galatasaray, which people regard to be called "street French" (French: La Rue Française because of his impression of the Francophone nature, where there are a lot of bars, cafes and restaurants that played live music as in restaurants and typical French cafes.

Istanbul is also famous for its restaurants to provide competent marine dishes. The most famous restaurants where the sea are those that are located on the shores of the Bosphorus and the Sea of ​​Marmara, south of the city as well as a number of famous restaurants on the sea islands of the Great Princes' Islands, and near the northern entrance of the Bosphorus from the Black Sea area
 
There are lots of nightclubs, restaurants, bars and cafes that offer Albazachh musical performances directly in all parts of the city. The number of these places for fun in the summer in particular, where sometimes transmitted to bid in the open air because of the intensity of the audience. Show the largest concentrations of nightclubs, restaurants and bars, in addition to art galleries, theaters and cinemas, in the areas surrounding each of: Avenue of Independence, the goal, your doctor, and the village of judges. Is distracted, "Babel" and "New پara" two realities in terms of Beyoğlu, the most famous nightclubs in winter and summer destination

 The most important nightclubs summer that are held outdoors include a number of those on the shore of the Bosphorus, such as theme parks: "Sortie", "Reina", and "Anjelique" in the neighborhood of Ortakwe In the same neighborhood is a bar making offers high performance to the music of jazz known as "Q Jazz Bar."
 
Host theaters mission in Istanbul concerts of singers and orchestras in the world, and most prominent of these theaters: the field of Istanbul in the neighborhood of course, and the field the way the dry reality of the Bosphorus as well as there, "Forest Park" (in Turkish: Parkorman) in the neighborhood of course, who hosted the awards ceremony M T BVD 2002, and is one of the most prominent areas that are held by direct concerts and celebrations spirited summer

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