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الثلاثاء، 28 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in Iceland

Republic of Iceland is an island nation in the European North Atlantic Ocean on the edge of the center of the Atlantic with a population of 320.000 inhabitants and a total area of ​​103.000 km 2 is the capital Reykjavik, the largest cities in the country, where she and Southwest regions are home to more than two-thirds of the country. Active volcanic country of Iceland and the geology of the righteousness of the country consists of plateau characterized by sand fields, mountains and glaciers, while many rivers pour the ice in the sea through the lowlands. The Gulf Stream water down the climate of Iceland, which makes it a moderate and appropriate for life, despite its location on the border of the Arctic Circle.

 Based on the Antanaomabok (Book of Settlement) was a leader of the Norwegian Anjulfr Arnarson the first to settle permanently in Iceland in 874 CE by others to visit the island before, and remained there throughout the winter. During the following centuries the island was settled by immigrants from Northern Peoples and expensive. The island since 1262 and until 1918 a part of the Royal Norwegian and Danish after that. Adopted by the people of the island until the twentieth century on agriculture and fishing significantly. In 1994, and Iceland signed the European Free Trade Agreement and thus the income diversity of the economy from fishing until the economic and financial services. According to the freedom of the press Iceland has the most free press in the world.

Icelandic economy is the free market economy with low taxes compared to the rest of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while Tahfez the social welfare system in the Nordic countries, thereby providing free health care for all, education and access to education tertiary became Iceland in recent years and is one of the richest and most developed countries in the world. In 2010 ranked ranked 14 among the world's developed countries, according to the Human Development Report issued by the United Nations, and the fourth largest producer in the world per capita in 2008 the Icelandic banking system collapsed, causing a major economic contraction and the accompanying political upheaval.
 
Icelandic society technologically advanced. While the Icelandic culture, the heritage of the peoples of the north, where most of the Icelanders out of northern (particularly west of Norway) and from the Gaelic peoples. Icelandic language of the North Germanic languages ​​are very close to the language of the Faroe and some Western Norwegian dialects. Includes the cultural heritage of the country's poetry, traditional cuisine and medieval Icelandic Alssaga. Iceland is currently the smallest countries in NATO in terms of population and the only one without an army is present

Iceland is located in the North Atlantic just south of the Arctic Circle, which passes through the Grimssa small island which lies off the northern coast of Iceland. Unlike the neighboring island of Greenland, Iceland followed in Europe and not North America, although it is located on the plates Aljiulocetin of both continents. The nearest land masses which are Greenland (287 km - 178 miles) and the Faroe Islands (420 km - 261 miles). The closest distance between them and Continental Europe is 970 km (603 miles) from Norway.

Iceland is the island's No. 18 in terms of area, and the second largest island in Europe after Great Britain. The area of ​​the main island of 101.826 square kilometers, the total area of the country estimated at about 103.000 km 2 (39,768.5 sq mi), covering 62.7% of the area of ​​tundra, there are about 30 small island in Iceland, including the island and archipelago Grimssa Vistmanayar. Covering the lakes and glaciers 14.3% of the area, while only 23% of the total area covered by a vegetarian is the largest of the lakes Borisvatn (reservoir): 83-88 km 2 (32.0-34.0 sq mi) and Byingfalavatn: 82 km2 (31.7 sq mi) There are also lakes other important for them and Ogoren Meevatn. The lake is the deepest lake Oskgeoffatn with an estimated depth of about 220 meters (722 feet

Iceland is geologically part of a single mid-Atlantic, and because the presence of Iceland above sea level, the location of the reef, where oceanic crust is made up and then expand to be replaced by other oceanic crust. In terms of the tectonics of Iceland do not belong to Europe or North America, where it resulted from higher cortex at the junction of tectonic plates on the ground and not continental
 
A disorder of the 4.970 km long coastline of Iceland, where most of the settlements. The heights of the island is fitted with a mixture unfit for habitation of sand and cold mountains. Major cities are the capital Reykjavík and surrounding towns such as Copavgor and Hafnervuordor and Gardabir and Rakianspar (where the international airport is located) and Akureyri in the north of the island. While Grimssa Island is located to the south of the Arctic Circle, the most populated areas; to the north of Iceland has three national parks are: Vatnaiokol and Sniffalzaokol and Bnajafiller

Mainly on the island Oceanic semi-polar. Keep current on the climate of the North Atlantic is warmer than those of the island on the same latitude. From areas with similar climate the Alaska Peninsula and the islands Aloloshih and Tierra del Fuego Although these areas closer to the equator. Despite its proximity to the coasts of the Arctic Circle, the ice-free throughout the winter.
  The attacks icebergs rare event where the most recently near the north coast 1969
There are some differences in climate between various parts of the island. Generally is considered the south coast is warmer and wetter and the wind from the north. The colder the central highland areas of the country, while the low-lying areas inland in the north is the most arid regions. Snow in winter is more common in the north to the south.
 
The highest temperature in the air at 30.5 ° Celsius (86.9 degrees Fahrenheit) in June 22, 1939 in Tigarrhorn on the southeastern coast. While the lowest to -38 degrees Celsius (-36.4 degrees Fahrenheit) in January 22, 1918 in Grimsstadar and Modrodalor in remote north-east of the country. Records of temperature in Reykjavik is 26.2 degrees Celsius (79.2 degrees Fahrenheit) in July 30, 2008, and -24.5 degrees Celsius (-12.1 degrees Fahrenheit) in January 21, 1918

Icelanders enjoy freedom of religion under the Constitution, although the National Church of Iceland, a Lutheran body, is the official state church. Maintains the National Register religious affiliation for each Icelandic citizen. In 2005, the Department of Icelanders to the following religious groups
· 80.7% of the members of the National Church of Iceland.
· 6.2% of members of unregistered religious organizations, or without any specific religious affiliation.
· 4.9% of the members of the Lutheran Free Church in Reykjavik and Hafnarfjordur.
· 2.8% are not members of any religious group.
· 2.5% of the members of the Catholic Church, represented by the Diocese of Reykjavik.

The remaining 5.9% includes about 20-25 other Christian denominations, while about 1% belonging to non-Christian religious organizations. The largest non-Christian sects are Osatroirvillagad a group of pagan new
 
Religious attendance is relatively low, as is the case in other Nordic countries. The above statistics represent membership of the administrative and religious organizations that do not necessarily reflect the actual distribution of religions among the population of Iceland. According to a study published in 2001 is 23% of the country's population are atheists or agnostics
The roots of Icelandic culture to Scandinavian traditions. Icelandic literature, popular especially in Alssaga, management started in the mid-and late Middle Ages. Icelanders are relatively focused on independence and self-sufficiency. In the analysis, conducted by the Commission of the European Commission finds more than 85% of the Icelanders that independence was "very important", which contrasts with the average EU countries and twenty five then at 53% and 47% of Norwegians and 49% for the Danes

Some traditional beliefs still exist even today, for example, some Icelanders believe the existence of dwarfs, or they do not want to exclude their presence
 
Iceland is a progressive on gay rights. In 1996, the Icelandic Parliament passed legislation to create registered partnerships for homosexuals, covering nearly all the rights and benefits of marriage. In 2006, other legislation passed unanimously in Parliament granted gay couples the same rights as gay couples in adoption and foster parenting and to assist in pollination. On June 11, 2010, the Icelandic parliament amended the Marriage Act, making it a neutral sex marriage defined him between two people and therefore legitimized gay marriage. Was the application of the law in June 27, 2010 also meant the amendment to the law is also cancellation of registered partnerships for homosexuals, when a marriage is the only option, as is the case with non-gay

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