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الأربعاء، 29 يونيو 2011

Tourism in Damascus / Syria

Damascus historic city gate of history, contemporary to the most important civilizations and lived the most famous history in science, literature, poetry, thought and industry, culture, astronomy, and the clergy and doctrine and theology of the Islamic and Christian, medicine, pharmacy and other add to the kings and leaders, princes and sultans, the role of centers and schools of science historical intent of every seeker of knowledge and knowledge in different eras.
Damascus is the capital of culture through history is full of creativity, is held by a lot of events and cultural activities are spread in many regions and neighborhoods of the city's local cultural centers in addition to the centers of international cultural, such as the French Cultural Center, the Spanish Cultural Center, Russian Cultural Center, German Cultural Centre

There are a lot of theaters, cinemas, museums, specialized including the Museum of Calligraphy Museum of Medicine and Science at the Arabs and the Museum of Damascus Historical and Museum of Popular Traditions and the Damascus National Museum and other museums, and there is an important milestone of the cultural monuments of the city is Dar Al Assad for Culture and the opera house Syrian and a number of cultural monuments, hoarding Damascus, Syrian cultural heritage is very rich with data in the fields of culture, literature, poetry, science, music and art, which always makes it a capital of culture, was selected Damascus - Arab Capital of Culture in 2008
Back the emergence of Damascus to nine thousand years BC or more, as evidenced by the discoveries and excavations at several sites in the city and its surroundings, including the site of Tel ash, researchers report it is one of the oldest cities and the oldest city in history, was the capital since the dawn of history, many cultures in different historical periods

Returns the first mention of the name Damascus in history to the list of geographic areas in the era of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III in the fifteenth century BC, as stated in the form of T - m - u - s, and researchers believe that the origin of this name dates back to the Semitic languages​​, which were scattered in the region. Where is called in Akkadian (Damishqa) and Hebrew דמשק (Damascus), while the label contains Aramaic, believed to be the original name of the city (Dermhawk) on the letter (t) plus has been neglected for later when you move the label to other languages. Where the prefix means in Aramaic der housing (house), and post interesting means hosed or quenched

Delaying the analysis of carbon 14 in the ash hill on the outskirts of Damascus that the city was inhabited since the seventh millennium BC and probably since 6,300 BC. M also dates the oldest human settlements in the basin of filings falling when Damascus to the ninth millennium BC. Nevertheless, the city did not witness the movement of construction even remember the second millennium BC
   Did not begin said Damascus as a city job until the advent of the Aramean the end of the second millennium BC, where they started to form, except the kingdoms in the region was the most important of Aram Damascus, which has taken the city as its capital and built the Arameans of canals and channels on the outskirts of the Barada River, which contributed to prosperity of agriculture and increasing population. The Romans and the Umayyads, and after them the development of these projects and the paranormal are still visible in the old part of the city
Arameans continued to rule the city until the eighth century BC when the Assyrian empire began to take over the Aramaic kingdoms in Syria

By the eighth century BC Alachorehaly established control of the city, despite the political upheavals and revolutions witnessed this period, however, that the city was famous as a trading center for cultural and Syria. The incense trade flourished and spices with the Arabian Peninsula. By the year 605 BC. M. Control waned after the fall of Nineveh, the Assyrian, however, the Medes and Babylonians. And become a city under the control of pharaoh Nackhaw II. However, the second Babylonian empire managed to annex it after a while. The city became later, after the rise of part of the Achaemenid empire

 Damascus fell in the hands of Alexander the Great in 333 BC. M. After his death, Damascus became part of the Seleucid kingdom. Occupied by the Roman emperor Pompey the Great in 64 BC. AD and became the capital of the mandate of Syria and the most important cities in Roman times. Christianity came to Damascus in the early years of the spread of Christianity, and later became an important Christian center, including the saints and the apostles began to spread and preach the Christian religion, including St. Paul. History of Damascus has been associated with the Greek world for a period of about ten centuries, during which the prosperity of the city known as the Hellenistic civilization, where Tmazjt elements of culture and civilization with the ancient Greek civilization and culture of the Syrian East, as well as with all civilizations that passed through the city in ancient times

 The city of Damascus in the seventh century and after the Islamic conquest of the city's most important Islamic cities, and a beacon for science, literature, reference and home to the leaders, scientists, intellectuals and celebrities, and transformed the city in the Umayyad period from the center of the state to the capital of the largest Islamic empire of the Umayyad dynasty extends eastward to the borders of China, and to the Pyrenees and the Atlantic waters and Andalusia in the west. Increased the caliphs' palaces in the capital, the Umayyad and extended the area of ​​construction, and it was the most important buildings in that era Umayyad Mosque, built during the reign of Caliph al-Walid bin Abdul Malik place of the Cathedral of John the Baptist, and before the Temple of Jupiter the Damascene, an edifice which remains one of the most beautiful buildings, the Arab-Islamic in the world.

 Umayyad Mosque consists of a large hall for prayer and rest in a large outdoor courtyard. The prayer hall consists of three internal parallel corridors separated by arches raised on columns consistent antique marble dating back to times before the Umayyad period. That is the mosque three minarets dating back to three different periods, the first mediated the north wall is known as the minaret of the bride, the oldest minaret in the history of Islam, the second in the east known as the minaret of Jesus in relation to the Messiah Jesus son of Mary, and the third is on the western side is known as a minaret Bey, relative to the Mamluk Sultan Bey. In Damascus, and the effects of monuments in every corner, and the Straight Street mentioned in the Bible and the Islamic and Christian sanctities

  Since the eighth century and the city of Damascus sits on the throne of cities and the Lighthouse Center civilized important, the Abbasids and took the city of Baghdad as their capital, and entered the armies of the capital Damascus, the most important present at that time to spend with their opponents from the men of the Umayyad and at the end of the Umayyad period, and in time of erosion and poor power Abbasid associated with Damascus, the state Tulunid in Egypt before that was linked to the Fatimids in Egypt, too, have suffered in the era of invasions Qaramita who occupied it several times, causing a lot of havoc and destruction, after the Fatimids, the extension of the Seljuk power of Damascus and ruled Atabegs in the form of independent and regained her throne as the center and the capital of civilization. Resisted a specific religion and enlighten the Franks fought against the Crusaders and repel the siege imposed by their forces in the area of ​​Darya, near Damascus, and defended the city maintained its independence, and came after him King Nur ad-Din Mahmud and made his capital from Damascus and Damascus became the capital of the zinc.

 Lion of Damascus began Shirkuh religion, which is sent by King Nur ad-Din to Egypt to face the Crusaders and the unification of the Muslim countries along the Syrian coast-Shami. The city was an important metropolis in the Fatimid era and the death of the Fatimid Caliph Add the religion of God and Ruler of the Fatimid Fatimids in Egypt in 1171. The country was united under the rule Zanki. With the death of Nur ad-Din in 1174 the Nasser Salah al-Din founded the Ayyubid state in Egypt and its capital, Cairo, Damascus, then the annexation of the provinces and maize to Egypt. After a period of recession, Damascus has regained its luster, and ranked as important in all cultural fields of political, military, literary and scientific in the Arab Mashreq

The mandate of Damascus and one of the largest states in the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and the most important city after the capital of the Mamluk Cairo. Where known as the "on behalf of the Levant", has extended its borders to the Euphrates and Rastan east and north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and out of Gaza and south of Karak. In the era of the Mamluk sultans of Egypt and Sultan Baybars Qalawun, the city has a large urban movement, and built a large number of mosques and schools. That era has ended with the entry of Tamerlane and his forces of the Islamic destruction of cities, including Damascus. But this disaster did not prevent the advancement of Damascus from the New Urbanism movement, she went back and building and construction, and flourished in industrial activity, trade, cultural and scientific, in the time of intensified conflict between the warring factions on governance in the last Mamluk

 Following the defeat of the Mamluks in the battle of Marj glutinous in 1516, Syria became a part of the vast Ottoman Empire and Damascus became the capital of the largest and most important cities in the Ottoman Empire after Istanbul, the most important. The first Ottoman rulers of Damascus of great importance as one of the most important cities in the Islamic world and called it the "Sham Sharif," and kept the city on its commercial, industrial and cultural in the East, as they were station stops where convoys of thousands of pilgrims who were stepping-stone to the Holy Land.
  Governors were keen to ensure security in the city, where they built new edifices, and they were interested in renovating mosques and baths and the old markets and care in the city. Of the most famous landmark dating back to the long historical period, hospice and Sulaymaniyah mosque, who carry the name of Sultan Selim I, known as hospice and Sulaimaniya, designed by architect Sinan, who was identified with the construction of famous monuments in Istanbul. And ends with the Ottoman era the cultural growth of the "horrors of alienation." In parallel with the flourishing of Damascus, Aleppo, which attract thriving Western ambassadors to become the third city in the Ottoman Empire after Istanbul and Damascus

.Damascus has many ancient and historic neighborhoods of old and modern districts. Damascus is the most important districts: the Old City and includes many of the old neighborhoods that are located within the walls of the old city and its buildings and its streets, alleys, churches and mosques preach and schools and historic castle and the famous markets.
And Damascus to revive the outside wall Archaeological old: Hay field, Jobar, Galilee area, canals, fitness, farm, migrant, Maliki, Corner of religion, Mezze, Abu Rumana, Kfar Sousse, Shaalan, Bab Touma, Baramkeh, Qaboun, Barzeh and homes, and Baghdad Street and Kassaa and others.
Characterized by streets or lanes of Old Damascus as narrow with houses close and the streets are paved with stones in a number of divisions and feel you're going in one like you've entered to date, this mosque or an old mosque and the Church of archaeological or home for the rule and this bath damask or Khan archaeological or house for a celebrity date or denominator of the Sahabi Jalil or a king or a leader or a ruler or a scientist or scholar or school history dating back to ancient times or the shops inside the market, archaeological or gates, columns, or the remnants of a Roman temple is actually you into history

.  In Damascus, famous markets and markets in the East and the ancient streets of the historic one has mentioned in the New Testament (Bible) under the name "Straight Street", where he lived St. Paul the Apostle Paul's Damascus, which was launched from Damascus, promising the Christian religion in Europe. And is characterized by the house of Damascus (or also called the Arab house in Syria) rooms distributed on two floors surrounding an open Pfshh decorated with flowers, roses, plants and water fountains Searh The Azem Palace of the most important examples of the House of Damascus.
In Damascus, more than 200 mosques and mosque. Most important of these mosques, and perhaps most famous landmarks of Damascus, is the great Umayyad Mosque, one of the world-famous symbols of Islam. From the mosques of Damascus other famous mosque hospice Sulaimaniya, which was built by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1516, and a mosque lanceolatus and a number of churches such as the famous church Hananyao Church of Mary and the Church of St. Paul on the Wall and the Cathedral of Our Lady of Alnaah and the Church of St. John of Damascus and the holy shrines and religious sites, schools, historical center and the role of science belonging to different historical eras

The city of Damascus, the most important centers of the Arab and Islamic culture in the Arab world's rich ancient history of the most important references of scientific and theological, cultural and literary history in the Arab and Muslim world. Of cultural facilities in Damascus, the first compound of the Arabic language in the Arab world and science centers, schools, historical, Damascus National Museum and the University of Damascus, 1923 and the library and virtual library 1982 and the Assad National Opera House and a number of the Syrian Arab cultural centers in the areas of Damascus

Damascus was throughout its long history, commercial and industrial center in an important region. It is famous since ancient times their industries and the outstanding skill of its creators is an important industrial center and traditional industries, such as the textile industry, textile industry, especially cloth brocade known internationally as the Damascus (Aldamasco) and wool and leather. And copper industries, and arabesques, engraving on wood, jewelry making and Almusdvat famous Damascene silk and wool and embroidered fabrics. Industry as well as the famous Damascene sweets and dried fruits that Damascus is famous in the whole world as well (Damascene sweets) or East Syrian sweets. Damascus was also famous in the past by making swords sword sword damask known for their quality and intensity and have shaped what is known as damask sword has baffled the metal swords are made from these scientists and the legendary metal called

Damascus as a city great widened and extended in a clear and carried out by the districts and new towns in its surroundings, the buildings, buildings and modern residential towers, as in the Mezze - and the area destroyed - and fitness - and the infection and the Abbasids and the palaces and trade and association of new housing, etc., and spread Damascus, which was on both sides of the river Barada climbed up on the slopes of Mount Qassioun and spread eastward and satisfaction to the Qaboun Barzeh and homes, as well as the west and spread to the Parties (Ghouta Damascus) green, you will find in the vicinity of old Damascus from each side spread of modern residential areas in the mountains surrounding the city's ancient. And oversees the areas of Mount Qassioun modern Damascus.
Linked Damascus with the Syrian cities and the world through a network of roads and Alawstradat modern and the latest carriers tourism through Boulmanat and means of transport developed, as well as a large network of railway lines that link with the various cities and regions of Syria, Turkey and Europe, and in the Damascus Airport Damascus International Airport and Mezze linking Damascus domestic airports with Syria and with the various countries of the world

Spread in the city of Damascus, a number of international hotels of modern class of seven and five star hotels and dozens of hotels of different grades and different types and levels of restaurants and cafes within and outside the city, and tourist facilities, large restaurants and clubs, swimming pools deployed in the hill Damascus known tourist in areas Ghouta Damascus and even resorts Damascene famous moderately faces and the beauty of nature in the high mountains such as summer resorts and the valley of the Barada and Zabadani and Bloudan where many hotels and complexes, tourist resorts, and add to the souks of Damascus old and well-known and famous with its products there are many markets, parks and malls of modern high-end, which sells the latest products and the Syrian world in the areas of new Damascus

Called on the city of Damascus - the city of jasmine, characterized by old Damascus planted jasmine and called Jasmine of Damascus with his fame and his memories in each lane and the house of the city, and since the foot care population of Damascus, planting roses and flowers inside the houses are large, and you find jasmine in patios interior and balconies and Alareic, arches, arches and columns that completely covered with aspects of ancient lanes and parks.
Characterized by Jasmine of Damascus smell fragrant pungent that gives the impression of good, than where joy seemed flowers like stars sparkling amid greenery, a plant climber, giving you a sense of innocence and affection symbolizes the sense of slender glide to Vnath aesthetic at the heart of the place, and the gardens of Damascus and houses are home security as published mist and smell fragrant in his hometown of Damascus / city of jasmine.
Damascus city of jasmine is the old city which gives you a lot, the magic place, the gate and the entrance to the date in the old city of Damascus in all its details, Mount Qassioun, where there are restaurants and cafes, beautiful views of the city, Ghouta singing Bmentzhadtha and restaurants many, hill Damascus and picturesque valley between the mountains where the borders of the Barada River rail road and the historic resorts resorts are scattered along the hill, clubs and wonderful restaurants