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الاثنين، 27 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in Constantine / Algeria

Constantine (in French: Constantine), and called the city of bridges and is the capital of the east of Algeria, Algeria and major cities in the area and the census population. Characterized by the old city being built on the rock of limestone of the harsh, giving it a unique sight is impossible to be found across the world like in any city. To cross from one shore to another through the ages built several bridges, Constantine became of more than 8 bridges, some destroyed for lack of repair, and some are still struggling with time, so named after the city of Constantine suspension bridges. Going through the valley of sand on the ancient city of Constantine and topped with bridges at altitudes above 200 meters

· The region's history began with the arrival of Berber tribes and attendance. They launched the Greek name of the Libyans, Alnomidiin. And is attributed to the establishment of Constantine Altjaralviniqian. It was the old name is (Qrta) means Balviniqih (village or city) and the Carthaginians call (Batim Sarim).

· Famous "Cirta" - old name of Constantine - the first time when the king has taken Massinissa Nomideh capital of the kingdom. I knew the city after the siege of Jugurtha, who refused his father's kingdom divided into three sections, with the support of the Romans, after a siege of five months stormed the fortifications of the city and seized it. Cirta returned to live with a new glory Nomidbh new king Jugurtha, who was able to avoid the division of the kingdoms of the Kingdom.
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· Then entered the city under the authority of the Romans. During the Byzantine period AD 311 years rebelled. Vajtaanha the central authority of the Romanian troops and ordered a new emperor Maxinos Btakribea.
 
· He Emperor Ksentntin built in 313 AD. And took his name and became known as Constantinople, or Constantine. I knew from the years 429 invasions Vandals, Byzantines and then restored.
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· With the entry of Muslims in Morocco knew the city a kind of independence was its people and the charge of their affairs on their own until the ninth century. The advent of the tribal region known as semilunar, and in the tenth century and then dominated the Arabic language on the people of the region

· Entered the city in the custody of Zirides then owners of the castle and Alhamadaan Bejaia. Andalusians settled in the city also settled by the Jewish community, and deal with people of the city of tolerance.
 
· It should be noted that the arrival of the Jews was after the fall of Andalusia, where they lived in peace under Islamic rule, and then expelled the Christians zealots of the Catholic Church in Rome after the fall of the last rulers of Andalusia
· And since the thirteenth century the city passed into the hands of the owners of Hafsids Tunisia and remained in their hands until the arrival of the Turks Algerians.
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· Before settling permanently in the region of the Ottoman Turks tried to take the city several times and have always been hampered by resistance Hafsids. Year 1568. My parents drove Mohammed Saleh Rice campaign on the city, and could be seized without a fight. And denounced his country after the expulsion of Abdul Mu'min Hafsids leader and his tribe of children Asawlh.
 
· Constantine was chosen as the capital of the Middle Baeljk. Favor of the Bay (1771-1792 AD.) Format and give the city its distinctive character. Of the most important work to build a mosque and a school Alqtanih. School Sidi Lakhdar, which taught me the Arabic language as a special district created for the Jews after they were Mtozein throughout the city

 · In 1830 AD, and with the occupation of Algeria by the French rejection of the city's residentsrecognize the authority of the French. Ahmed led the Bay campaign and was able to respond inFrench twice in two different battles to take over the arch, which was the East Gate. In 1837, was able to Domoreir French campaign led by a betrayal of the Jewish population of the city (wherethe French were able to infiltrate into the city through secret passages to reach the city center), and by artillery also make a hole in the wall of the city. Then there was intrusion, and French forces clashed with fierce resistance from the population, were forced to continue fighting in the streets and houses. Finally the battle ended in the deaths of several people, the stability of the occupiers in the city after several years of failed attempts. Managed Bey and his successorAhmed bin Isa flee to the south.
There are state of Constantine and the effects of several parameters including:
- Tombs of the prehistoric era: the tombs of the people of the city of Constantine, a great deal of luxury, located mountain summit, Mr. Msid, in the place called "dead set".
Also discovered other tombs located under the "cave bear" and the other hand, "Bakira", and there are other cemeteries in "carob" sites so-called "retreat Sidi Bou stone" Qhqash, and K Tasingh Bbnoarh and vowed to all the pre-history.
- To the cemetery Almigalitih Bonowarh: about 32 km from Constantine, and on the national highway No. 20 leading toward the cemetery is located Valma Almigalitih Bonowarh to the south-western slopes of Mount "removed" at a distance of 2 km north of the village Bonowarh.
This consists of Atmanat "dolments" of a cohesive limestone layers dating back to the prehistoric era, and it seems that a large number of them have been damaged and extinction.

It is noteworthy that the general form of the historical monuments in the form of a table composed of four blocks of rock and vertical table, forming in turn Chamber of triangular shape and is usually Aldolman surrounded by a circle of stones and one, sometimes of two circles, three or four, and people in the area veterans they use to bury their dead in this way appears to be fortified, which has continued to the third century BC. m.
Constantine dominated their pigmentation, cultural and religious since antiquity, and dedicate this look after the stability of Islam, I knew the process of building of mosques are a permanent process, and Znserd the names of the most important of these mosques are as follows:
· Great Mosque: built in the era of 503 years Zirid e 0.1136 m, was built on the ruins of the Roman temple object approach the Arab Benmehidi Currently, the foreign engineered changed as a result of restoration, featuring Arabic writings inscribed on its walls.

 · Collector market spinning: built by the Bey is good and that was in 1143 AH -1730 AD) the French military leadership turned to the Cathedral and remained until after he returned to his origin.
· Collector, Mr. Green was built by the Bey Hassan Bin Hussain alias Abu Hanak in (1157-1743 AD) as evidenced by the inscription that is installed on a slab of marble above the entrance door, and there is next to the mosque cemetery includes the graves of several, including the tomb of Hassan Bey
· Mosque of Sidi El Kettani: There are Square "market age" Currently, Bai Bin Saleh ordered echeloned built in the year (1190 -1776 e) and to the side there is a cemetery for any family.
· Mosque Oval: There are neighborhood door arch, built in the post-independence period, is punishable by senior scientists, including the city of Constantine Ataiwgay Sheikh and Sheikh Yusuf Boughaba renowned scholar, and there is next to the mosque of Imam Oval Institute of Forensic Sciences

 · Mosque of Emir Abdelkader: laying the basis of President Houari Boumediene and inaugurated by President Chadli Ben Jadid is one of the largest mosques in North Africa, is characterized by its high minarets, which reaches an elevation of each 107 m high dome of 64 m, dazzle appearance construction with its magnificent architectural and is one of the artifacts that crafted by human hands in the present era, but accomplished this design style oriental Andalusian, was the fruit of cooperation between some of the engineers and technicians from the Egyptians and Moroccans, in addition to the significant contribution of engineers, technicians and Algerian workers, and expand the mosque for about 15 thousand worshipers, and point out that the Egyptian engineer, "Mustafa Moses, "which is one of the Arabs is the senior engineers who design the mosque and university.
The city is rich in a number of other mosques, including: Mr. Fan Mosque - Mosque Sidi Mohamed Ben Maimon - Mosque Sidi Buanabh - University of Hafsa - Mr. Rashid Mosque - Mosque Sidi Nmedil - Mr. Abdul Momin Mosque - Mosque Sidi Boumaza - Sir Qmosh University - University forty honest, etc. ...
The city was fortified by walls Taatkhalh seven gates, and some say six, are all closed in the evening, namely:
· Alhananch door: which allows exit from the north of the city through the valley of sand, and leads to the springs flowing into the swimming pools, Mr. Msid.
Lives, the door: extends across an exciting sound of the rotor, and leads to the northern side of the valley of sand and connects this section to the sources, Mr. Memon that are in the laundry.
· Door Kantara: up to South City West Valley sand.
Give fresh door: opens on the road to Mr. Rashid is located at an altitude of 510 m.
· The door of the New Square is located north of the first of November, demolished in 1925.
· Bab El Oued "or Mila door" allows access to the pavilion Rawabi blood money, no place was the Palace of Justice today.

It was these doors function as immunization against strangers to the city and began to disappear gradually removed to the French occupation raised by the College. Dead monument dating back to 1934, was built to commemorate the dead who fell in France, the First World War and its surface visitor can entertain his eyes wonderful panorama of the city of Constantine, was held by the statue of victory that seems mythical bird ready to fly. The specifications of this monument that is located entirely in the middle of the distance between Algiers and Tunis, and there is a statue across from him, "Virgin Mary" and named "Our Lady of Peace."
Due to the rugged terrain of the city and the Rift Valley, which opened up the deep sand, seven bridges have been set up to facilitate the movement of movement, known then as the city of Constantine, suspension bridges, namely:
· Door arch bridge: the oldest bridges built by the Turks in 1792 and destroyed by the French to build on the ruins of the existing bridge in the year 1863.

 Mr. Rashid · Bridge: What makes a bow 27, the largest has a diameter of 70 m, taller and is estimated to 105 m, a length of 447 m and width 12 m, began to traffic by the year 1912, and is the highest and the largest stone bridge in the world
Sir Msid · Bridge: built by the French in 1912 and also called the suspension bridge, with an estimated height of 175 meters and a length of 168, which is the highest bridge in the city.
· Bridge navigator Solomon dedicated rail corridor is pedestrian only, and a length of 15 m and width two and a half, a street linking the railway station and city center.
· Bridge Mjazn sheep: is an extension of the street Rahmani Achour, due to the narrowness is unidirectional.
· Bridge devil: a small bridge connecting both sides of the valley of sand and is located at the bottom of the groove.
· Bridge Waterfalls: There are on the road leading to the pool and the bridge above the water and sand valley beneath composed with waterfalls, built in 1928.
Project of Bridge sand giant: relative to the valley of sand and will be a length of 1150 and a width of 25 m paths back and two roads forth in addition to Scotty, "Tramway" in the middle of the bridge and at an altitude of more than 100 m and will run from the Heights "neighborhood of Mansoura" all the way to the "neighborhood Jinan olive" was dedicated to him financial cover 250 million dinars

Called poets the Constantine city name, "Love and the air" and this because of the kindness of the faces, and the paper's tempers its people, and the spread of orchards and trees across the whole and thus have the city on several parks public works to improve the atmosphere inside, and perhaps most important of these gardens, which still maintain the glory and beauty, garden bin Nasser or as so-called "Jinan rich" and mediated Street Bab El Oued, the district Sidi Mabrouk no parks, one located the upper region and the other is located in the region lower, and there are garden district, the beautiful view with the name "Verwa Abdul Hamid," it should be noted that the short, "Ahmed Bay "is available on the beautiful garden,

  Remember some of the novels that Bey himself was supervised by, among gardens Constantine wrote about some of the historians and travelers, "Garden, Kassum Muhammad (which claims Schora Qambith) located behind the street Belouizdad, which has been attracting a lot of people for its beauty and intensity of trees and there are a statue the sculptor's "Lost" L Hoest, and under the bridge arch door Hdegh no great beauty, and because of its location in the slope, they fall for attention from a distance

· Has Fsntinh the means of transport available such as transport of urban and peri-urban, which covers the city, but did not meet requests Almstkhzmin to their lines, which led to the idea the development of lines of tramway, a project which began work at the tramway Constantine. It also has Tillfarak as it connects neighborhood Tattash Belkacem district Emir Abdelkader through the hospital university Ibn Badis at an altitude of 707 meters and includes the line 33 vehicle card accommodate up to more than 1200 passengers per hour direction one can cover the journey in a matter of 08 minutes and ensures service to more than 100 thousand people and serve visitors to the university hospital, estimated at 10 thousand visitors a day and led to the create a new dynamic to explore the tourist sights of Constantine