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الثلاثاء، 28 يونيو، 2011

Statue of Liberty / America

Statue of Liberty (in English: Statue of Liberty) is a sculptural work of art has given it to France, the United States of America on October 28, 1886, a commemorative gift, in order to foster closer friendship between the two countries on the occasion of the centennial of the American Revolution (1775-1783).
 
Since then settled statue located overlooking the Bay of New York, New York United States to be in the country receive all visitors, whether tourists or immigrants. Designed by Frederic Bartholdi designed the structure, while the structural Gustave Eiffel.
 
Settle the statue on Liberty Island in the Gulf of New York; as 600 meters away from Jersey City, New Jersey and 2.5 km to the south-west of Manhattan, a total area of ​​49.000 square meters (12 acres

The official name of this statue is "" (English: Liberty Enlightening the World), "It is a democracy or liberal thought Liberal Thought" and a symbol of liberated women from the shackles of tyranny - that was thrown when one of her feet. This lady stuck in her right hand a torch to symbolize freedom, while in her left hand holds a book inscribed by the Roman letters the phrase "July 4, 1776," a history of the American Declaration of Independence on her head she wears a crown composed of 7 spears symbolize the rays represent the seven seas or seven continents in the world.
 
Based on the base of the statue concrete - granite width 47 meters (154 feet), with a length of the foot to the top of the torch 46 meters (151 feet), while the total length of the base 93 meters (305 feet). It consists of copper plates with thickness of 2.5 mm (0.01 inch) installed to the structure of the iron, and weighing a total 125 tons.
 
Surrounding the statue as a whole wall with a star (star of 10 heads), was built in 1812 as part of Fort Wood (English Fort Wood), who used to defend the city of New York during the American Civil War (1861-1865

In 1869 by Frederic Bartholdi (French: Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi) designed a miniature statue of a woman carrying a torch, and presented to the Khedive Ismail to place the statue at the entrance of the Suez Canal newly-opened on 16 November this year, but the Khedive Ismail, apologized for accepting the suggestion Bartholdy given the high costs required by this project, as Egypt did not have the liquidity necessary for such a project, especially after the cost of digging the canal and opening ceremony.
 
At this time, the French Republic, the third (1870-1940) are seized with the idea of ​​courtesy souvenirs for the Arab states across the seas to Taasir continue my friendship with, so I was thinking in presenting the United States this statue on the anniversary celebration of the centennial of the Declaration of Independence, which comes on time on July 4, 1876

 And began preparations in full swing, where it was agreed that The French design of the statue while the Americans are the design rule that will settle it. For Zlcla, started a big campaign in each of the two countries to find funding for such a huge project; In France, the tax and entertainment used by citizens as well as the lottery is a means by which managed through France for $ 2.25 million francs to finance the design and shipping to America.
 
On the other side of the Atlantic was the art galleries and the theater and the way the Americans to provide funds to build the pedestal, and was leading this campaign, Senator and Mayor of New York and William Ivartz (English William M. Evarts) - who became the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the United States later - but this was not enough, which alone by Joseph Pulitzer (in English Joseph Pulitzer) - the Pulitzer Prize later - that the campaign through the paper, which was issued under the name of the world ([[WOrld news p. and then later was selected the project site on the island of freedom that was then called Island as a bucket (in English: Bedloe) until 1956

Among these efforts are also done by the poet of America Emma Lazarus (in English: Emma Lazarus), where she wrote a poem called the poem statue's new (in English: The New Colossus) in the November 2, 1883, that this poem did not become famous until after some years It also will come later.
 
Thus, the available funds of the crisis, and the architect Richard Morris Hunt, Khatib (in English: Richard Morris Hunt) and design rule which ended in August of 1885 to be laying the foundation stone on the fifth of this same month. A year later, construction work was completed on 22 April 1886. As for the structure, it was the work of the French architect Eugène Le Duc (French: Eugène Viollet-le-Duc), but he died before the completion of the design, and was commissioned Gustave Eiffel (French: Gustave Eiffel) for completion of that work. Indeed, the Eiffel designed the chassis so that the framework consists of the main statue is installed in part of the second at the base to ensure stability of the statue

 Design work was completed the statue in France early in July 1884 Vtm shipping the statue on the French ship Aazari (in French: Isere), where I arrived at the port of New York in June 17, 1885. The statue was dismantled to 350 pieces and placed in 214 fund to be stored until the end of the building will be the rule, which ended at a later time for the arrival of the statue.
 
Thus, in the October 28, 1886 - ie after the completion of the pedestal 6 months - by U.S. President Grover Cleveland (in English: Grover Cleveland) inaugurated the statue in a major ceremony, He was a senator and mayor of New York who led the campaign donations - William Ivartz (in English: William M. Evarts) - a speech on this occasion.
 
In 1903 has been developed for the bronze plaque on the wall of the internal base of the tower bearing the words of poet Emma Lazarus descend (in English: Emma Lazarus) after 20 years of writing in 1883

In 1916 - in the context of the First World War - An explosion in Jersey City damaged statue valued at $ 100,000 U.S., which led to determine the size of visitors until the reform.
On October 15, 1924 was declared the statue and the island a national monument, and is administered by Department of National Parks (in English: National Park Service - NPS), which is the federal agency entrusted with the management of archeological sites throughout the U.S.
 
On October 28, 1936, such as the golden jubilee of the establishment of the statue, so the U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (in English: Franklin D. Roosevelt) to re-statue courtesy and recognition thanks to the American nation.
 
As in 1984, has joined the statue to the list of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO grouping.
And two years later in 1986 and in preparation to celebrate the centenary of the statue, it was the work of a comprehensive restoration has been installed a new layer of gold to shine the torch lights of New York City at night

Atheist after the events of September 2001, the U.S. authorities to close the museum and the statue and the island to the public to review security measures and developed, and then re-opening of the outer part in the December 20, 2001. Other parts remained closed until the opening of the base again to the public on August 3, 2004 AD - after 3 years of closure - but not allowed to enter after him. Visitors are exposed to security checks similar to that in force at airports within the new security measures

· Total weight: 125 tons
Slide Show base: 47 meters (154 feet)
· Height of the statue: 46 meters (151 feet)
· Overall height: 93 meters (305 feet)
· Hand length: 5 meters (16 feet 1 / 2 inch)
· The length of the right arm: 12.80 meters (42 feet)
· Index finger length: 2.44 meters (8 feet)
Slide Show from the face of the permission, then: 3.05 m (10 ft)
· Nose length: 1.37 meters (4 feet 6 inches)
· Eye length: 0.76 meters (2 feet 6 inches)
Slide Show View Mouth: 0.91 meters (3 feet)
Slide Show Central: 10.67 meters (35 feet)
· The number of annual visitors in the year (2004): 3 million
· The number of visitors throughout the 116 years (1889-2005): not available

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