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الثلاثاء، 28 يونيو، 2011

Leaning Tower of Pisa / Italy

Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Pisa Italian, was supposed to be vertical but the tower began to tilt rod after Alibd built in August 1173 AD shortly. Located next to the Cathedral of Pisa "Square miracles" piazza dei Miracoli.
 
Located Tower of Pisa in Italy, Pisa in the state of Tuscany, construction started in 1175 AD, and lasted construction 174 in, known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa to the presence of Milan by the deviation from the vertical plane, consisting of eight floors built of white marble Roman-style, up 54.5 meters Oppe staircase built within the walls consisting of 300 degrees, (currently equipped with an electric elevator).
 
Tendency is clearly visible as is about 18 feet (tilt more than five degrees), and said that the reason that Milan is softness and a decrease in soil based upon the tower. The back of this Milan since the early stages of building this tower, but the architects continued to build on the basis of the same AC Milan, and in 1275 AD when they were building a combined fourth and fifth of the tower tried architects move the center of gravity of the tower to avoid Milan, but it seems they did not succeed so, and even now are attempts to stop the Milan and the establishment of the pillars of dolly

Since 1990 in the last century closed the tower and prevent tourists from climbing because of the collapse of the gallery at every moment.
Associated with the Tower of Pisa Italian world famous Galileo Galilei Galilei, and his experience on the ground speed.
Height of the tower is 55 meters above the ground. The estimated mass to 14.500 tons. The current tendency is estimated at 5.5 degrees, and the tower 294 degrees.
The establishment of the tower began in August 8, 1173 AD. After building the third floor in 1178, Finance tower and stopped the construction work of a century. In 1272 CE, was the construction of four additional floors in order to modify the angle of Milan. Business and stopped again in 1301. And in 1372 built another floor and put the bell in the tower.

There is disagreement about the identity of the architect who built the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For years the Bonanno Pisanu is built by the architect, an artist known from the twelfth century of Pisa, famous for his works bronze, especially in the cathedral of Pisa. Construction of the tower, which start in 1174 by Bonanno Pizano, was completed after a long pause at the hands of Giovanni Pisanu was in the second half of the fourteenth century by Tommaso di Andrea Pisanu.
 
The story goes that Galileo Galilei dropped two balls (cannon) women with different blocks of the tower to demonstrate that the speed of their fall does not depend on Ktlhma. This story, although it is on the lips of a student of Galileo, is largely false.
 
Benito Mussolini ordered that the tower be returned to the vertical position, and was pouring cement foundations. The result was unexpected and made the tower more immersed in the soil.

During World War II, the U.S. military destroyed all the towers in Pisa about, for fear of the possibility of snipers in the towers. The bombing was the Tower of Pisa is also planned; but the decision came at the last minute to pull out the tower saved from destruction.
 
On February 27, 1964, asked the Italian government aid to prevent the tower from falling. Was appointed a multilateral group of engineers, mathematicians, historians, and they met in the Azores islands to discuss how to install it. After several decades of research and work on the subject, the tower was closed to visitors in January 1990. After a decade of efforts to patch and installation have been re-opened the doors to visitors in December 15, 2001.
 
  Been proposed several methods to install the tower, including adding 800 metric tons of lead versus Kthagl high on the party or from the base of the tower. The final solution to correct the Milan was removing 38 cubic meters of soil from under the party's high from the base of the tower. The tower was declared "stable" for three hundred years later, at least. At least two people jumped from the tower using a parachute (parachute) are Mike McCarthy in the August 5, 1988 and (in the Boston Globe, August 6, 1988), Arne Arthus in the February 1, 2000