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الاثنين، 27 يونيو، 2011

Citadel of Salah al-Din / Egypt

Citadel of Saladin in Cairo, Egypt. Built by Saladin in the period 1176 until 1183, using prisoners of Norman. He said to Muhammad Ali mosque. Was the seat of power in Egypt since the days of Saladin (1183) until the transfer of Khedive Ismail, the seat of government to Abdeen Palace, which was built for this purpose in the contract of 1860. Citadel of Salah al-Din is located in the neighborhood of the castle - the successor - has been erected on one of the hills are separated from the cliffs on the outskirts of Cairo.
 
The Citadel of Salah al-Din in Cairo of the most prestigious military fortresses built in the Middle Ages, Muhammad Ali mosque inside a strategic first-class as provided by this site of the importance of the defensive because it controls the cities of Cairo and Fustat, as it constitutes a natural barrier up between the two cities as it is on this site can provide connectivity between the castle and the city in the state of siege as they will become the last bastion of a sit-in case if the city fell to the enemy

Castle towering over this lot and many of the historical events which saw the walls of different historical events during the Ayyubid and Mamluk eras and time of the French campaign on Egypt in 1798, and even took over the rule of Mohammed Ali Pasha, Egypt, where he brought her prosperity and greatness. The Sultan al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub first thought of building a castle on a hill voice in in 572 AH / 1176, where his minister Bahauddin Karakus Assadi demolition of mosques and tombs that were on the sound so that is building a castle out where workers carved the rock and create a trench artificially separation of the cliffs for an increase in the voice and power of immunity

Gates of the castle
· Door Mokattam
This section was known as Bab Mokattam to draw close to Mokattam Tower, which dates to the Ottoman era as defined by this section as the door of the mountain to its supervision on the door of the cliffs As it is now known as the gate of Salah Salem.
 
The bridge section at a time, and was a rectangular opening worked in a wall is too thick in the direction of the south tower Mokattam has been added to this section the year 1200 AH / 1785 wall with battlements is due to the time of Muhammad was Pasha, who built this place was empty that time exclusively with what followed from the facilities and there was this door to a plaque bearing a foundational text in Turkish Pasha was the name and date of construction of the palace door and the year 1200 AH / 1785 lost now.
 
When he took Muhammad Ali Pasha, the government and has done renovations to the castle has paved the way from the door of the mountain to his castle Moqattam and add slide rising to the top of the cliffs and the length of this road about 650 meters, but now has been split this way and made ​​the path of Salah Salem Road Railway Misr Helwan and road traffic accidents

We have lost the features of this Ababa was also demolished a large part of the fence and Cravat, which was topped as the demolition of a large part of the stairs, which was to reach the top of the fence north tower Mokattam when building a road, Salah Salem in 1955 and opened the door the current which enters from the castle on the Salah Salem and next to the door, which was built by Mohammed Pasha, this has the Supreme Council of Antiquities to re-open this door to fit with the historical and cultural position.

 · The new door
Began Mohamed Ali Pasha in building the new chapter year 1242 AH / 1827, to be used instead of the door the runway and that the door is GP of the castle established by the Nasser Salah al-Din year 579 AH / 1183 has seen Muhammad Ali Pasha, that both of the door the runway and the door of Janissaries, not suitable for the passage of vehicles and guns with he built a calf instead of the new door and paved the way to facilitate the steep ascent to the castle and down this road and is known today as the new door or street railway quarry.
 
The door of the new facets major first, a North, overlooking the street door the new railway quarry is located on the western side of Archives of old book box castle and the door of the Janissaries and the length of this interface is 15.50 meters and a height variable, ranging between 16 meters to 20 meters and contain this interface on a number of architectural details distinct and adorned with a block entrance surmounted by a plaque written inside the line area leading on the floor of the branches of plants, "O deoppilant doors" and the bottom of this write cartouches wrote inside "Racmh Abdul Ghaffar" and is located in the Kosty block the entrance medallion circular diameter of 123 centimeters decorated Dakhha symbols of the Egyptian army and units and the various weapons in the era of Mohamed Ali Pasha

.· Door Wastani
Differed in the naming of this section Balostany while said Casanova, in his book 1894, the Cairo citadel, fortress of the mountain he named Balostany because it mediates Aldioanin big Balhouc Royal and two Court of Qaitbay, the Court of Al-Ghouri, some researchers that he knew Balostany because it separates the vestibule of the castle GP Maritime - new section - and the yard which is located the Mosque al-Nasir Muhammad and the Mosque of Mohammed Ali Pasha was known of the tower as Burj drum due to incidence next to the House of Justice established by Baybars and neglected her during the reign of Mansur Qalawun that the new architecture his son Nasir Muhammad Ben Qalawun not to be a house of justice, but to be drummers and named Tbelkhana so-called Tower of the tower as drum major for being close to Tabkhanh. The Muhammad Ali Pasha, the renewal of this section and the wall that surrounds it, although it is not known to date to renew the door Wastani due to the lack of foundation text or a plaque by it is likely that he has Btgadh year 1242 AH / 1826, upon renewal of the door of the few next to the door Wastani in terms East.

 · The door of the castle
He knew the inner door of the gate tower Qkulah few, this was a door separating the Citadel or the city fortified military in the north and the Royal Castle and the city in the south but now it is known as the gate of the Military Museum

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