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الاثنين، 24 يناير، 2011

The use of papyrus in the era of the Pharaohs

Papyrus of the most popular plants known to mankind since the dawn of history, which is an aquatic plant that grows in freshwater swamps and land covered by shallow water to a depth of no more than 50 cm, or aspects of the canals and land high humidity or salt water

This plant of monocots one and his name Ballatyny (Sipes papyrus), and therefore of the genus (Alsaybrs) a Ojnls platoon Saadia and Egypt has of this race almost seventy different types of papyrus (Cypress papyrus) and was no longer grows in Egypt, but as plants for decoration In some gardens but it continued to grow in abundance in Egypt until 1820 and consists of the stalk of the plant floor, known as "Alraizum" usually extend in the silt, which is the surface of swamps, and these leg stretches to send roots down into the mud to get to the food needed

Is formed in the upper part of the "Alrazizum" buds turn into branches Bags (leg) is a triple-cut is usually thick in parts of the lower harbor and then gradually as we head to the top of the leg until the end of the leg at the top of Beram blooming for a lot of green yarn What gives us the form of "Flower" and the leg covered with papyrus green rind and a leg any contract and encase the lower leg submerged in the water some papers carcinoma. Ranging in size between five and nine papers, a lush red color

Use the ancient Egyptian papyrus in many uses, it has made of the leg ropes (samples of which are the Egyptian Museum), as well as use in the manufacture of mats to sit upon, or to encapsulate the bodies of the dead before burial, after the embalming process and making the priests of marrow papyrus sandals, which were Itnalunha.

Ancient Egyptian as well as I could take advantage of the lack of a property density and buoyancy above the water and he made them boats and big boats used for fishing and bird

 The papyrus among the first materials used by ancient Egyptians in building their huts with the development of use of building materials, such as: limestone, granite, but they have been affected by their environment Amenity

 Perhaps the most important use of the papyrus is making papyrus sheets or rolls of papyrus as a writing and blogging. Whereas the papyrus of the most popular natural plants in Egypt, so the Egyptians called this plant the most common names of multi-name erased "mhit" In addition to the leg called the name of "ANA" is also fired on the promises of papyrus, "ANA". n. Erased wid.n.mhit,). Also called the "pw" form

And opened a package from the stems of papyrus the name of "erase". The dense thicket of papyrus has called it "Thovy"or "Thov, " Not only did the ancient Egyptians to express their papyrus Names Former Vzarroa under the name "Grant"mnh) or turn mnhi as well as "Water"itr meaning papyrus or some of its parts Kalakecor stripped him to Manufacturing

Making papyrus, despite the abundance of images of ancient Egyptian life, which scored on the tombs and temples and monuments but until now did not reach us any scenes for the manufacture of papyrus, only a single view of the cemetery "Bbwimmera" of the Twelfth Dynasty Luxor. It represents the two men standing in the boat of papyrus in a swamp and the one Ptkulaia stalks of papyrus, while the other is to link what has been uprooting them in packages where the third person transported to the fourth sitting engaged in the number of stems of papyrus and processing for the paper industry where images, which handle both parties to the leg of after cutting the flower, the bloom between the fingers of his left foot and the fingers of his left hand and disarming the outer shell with his right hand

 There is no doubt that the landscape is a process of preparing the plant for processing. He has a lot of scientists attempts to manufacture them papyrus newly Bruce Bruce J Bdayip with the nineteenth century AD and Alfred Lucas to the successful "Batescum Jen"B. Gunn in the manufacture of luxury sample of the plant are now in the Egyptian Museum. And the advantage of durability and strength and viability of the sprain, was followed the following steps

 Cut stems of papyrus, a green to the lengths easily dealt with, and then remove outer shell construction of the inner core into thick slices is not necessary to be of a thickness of exactly one, and that the work of the grooves in one of the two sides of medulla of papyrus, and then brought the cloth absorbs water and placed on Juan and a half it This slide was so Mtaznp and overlapping slightly. And covered with a cloth and beats it for an hour or two Bmedk then placed in the presses for a few hours Vtlthm slide and hold together without the use of any adhesives

 However, the most successful modern attempts to make papyrus those carried out by Dr. Engineer / Hassan Fahmy Ragab, director and owner of Museum d / Rajab Barada, where he began in 1961 in an attempt to obtain a sample of papyrus found in Wadi El-Natron and managed planted in his farm on the island of Jacob has many experiences , Research, and succeeded after years of producing a kind of papyrus leaves very similar to the existing papyrus in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

 1. Removes the outer shell of the green plant which is thick and solid and was used by ancient Egyptians in the work of baskets and sandals.
2. Taken that leg skim the crust, has been dubbed the bone and this part only, which is used in the work of papyrus.
3. Cut into slices longitudinal leg, but no thicker than 3 mm and the thickness of the paper depends on the thickness of the slides.
4. Slides then placed in fresh water ponds, in order to dissolve the salts and sugars found in the plant after a few days taken Tderfl Bderfalp slides and heavy on the wooden panel, to extract the fluid from the slide
 5. Cut then slides to different sizes, as required, is done on a slab of wood.
6. Lay the slide on a piece of fabric larger than the size of paper required again and stacked slides once again horizontal and vertical, taking into account that each slide the edge over the other, so that does not allow the existence of holes in the paper and covered with another piece of cloth.
7. Tderfl segments within pieces of cloth and then placed between two pieces of felt to absorb excess water and then placed under the pistons for two hours to change the felt every ten hours, then left the paper under the piston for 12 hours again.
8. Raise the stock of the piston, thus ending the last stages of manufacture of papyrus. It was this method for the manufacture of papyrus in his name at the Ministry of Industry Academy of Scientific Research in 1977

The most important Astnajath making papyrus that is not where any chemical on the one hand, and stick to the slides to each other without the use of any types of adhesives

 Ancient Egyptians used papyrus chips write it in long rolls, in some cases to 45 meters which is the first Papyrus Harris.

He was taken into account when making lap to paste the parties to the pages to each other by the action of starch adhesives, covering each page approximately 1-2 cm from the northern side of the page following it and this is called the fixed link, which is characterized by Boukhuntha and increased thickness, and the link is always a right angle with horizontal fibers of the pages, was launched by the Egyptians on each sheet or page with the name "Qaan

 It was the beginning and the end of the roll, the more parts susceptible to damage get strong slices attached to the bottom to protect it, and was taken into account when you paste pages lap with each other that all fiber horizontal pages on one side, fiber vertical on the other side, with the exception of very few cases the writer is pasted Pace

 The face of the language and called Recto is the one whose side ever fiber horizontal pages, which is allocated for the writing, while the back is called Verso consists of the side ever fiber vertical pages, which are parallel to the fiber (links) and the papyrus folded normally so that the fibers horizontal within the lap, but vertical fiber, a lap back and become one of the outside. The Papyrus Files yet completed folded in a cylinder roughly the same height is the height of pages that make up the lap, while the thickness depends on the number of pages and the Romanian papyri wrapped about the wooden leg or on a piece of bone

 Was the ancient Egyptian writing starts on the side ever fiber of horizontal lap, when you're on this side it is placed on the other side ever vertical fiber

 The ancient Egyptians used the line horizontally and vertically in writing on papyrus, and then only the line on the horizontal line only since the Middle Kingdom and became a vertical line is limited to some addresses. It was started by a margin without writing piety slices of papyrus wide ranges between 5 cm and 9 cm, where it's more wild parts susceptible to damage

 Was not interested in the Egyptian writer numbered pages, and there were no numbers except in the Papyrus Papyrus is one SHOW Ebrs which pages are numbered from No. (1) to (110) with the omission of pages 28.29.

The author writes his themes on papyrus, without leaving a vacuum at the beginning of the first line or with the beginnings of chapters and paragraphs sequence was characterized by some non-words that you write and the red ink will go through until the end of the topic.

And sometimes the writer writes the address on the back of papyrus from the first page so that it can be read after the papyrus roll. The author corrects the mistakes in red ink or remove

 And use the ancient Egyptian ink (ink) of calcium carbonate (white) and carbon (black) and calcium sulfate (yellow) and hematite (brown) and lead oxide red (red) The blue and green were of glass powder. The colors were made in the form of tablets after crushing the material well and then mixed with glue and water and then dried for use.

That was used in writing, only black and red, while the rest of the colors were used in the coloring, and black color due date in the use of writing in Egypt to pre-dynastic period 3400 years BC. M

Egyptian scribes used black ink to write their topics in different files papyrus The use of red color was limited at first, and used the ancient Egyptians since the beginning of the Middle to write the month and day in their histories in red, with the exception of some cases.

In literary topics When divided into tiny pussy he put a small red point or it begins a sentence or paragraph in red or write the words you want to show their importance as well as in writing the final words of each papyrus. The ancient Egyptian papyrus used for drawing and coloring, and use it to write it down and see it in the Book of the Dead, which was placed with the deceased