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الثلاثاء، 28 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in Venice / Italy

Venice (and also named the country Abannadeghian, expressing Bunodrchia βενέτικος or Greek or relative to the nut; Italian Venezia / venɛtt͡sja /) a city in northern Italy, capital of the Veneto region, with a population +271367 (census estimate January 1, 2004). Together with Padua, the city is included with Padua, Venice Metropolitan Area (population 1,600,000). Historically, the city was an independent nation.
 
  And was known as "Dominante", and "Venice" and "Queen of Searaladraeteki," and "City of Water" and "City of Bridges", and "City of Light." And wrote about Luigi Barzini in The New York Times}, and Ocefhaa, saying: "It is undoubtedly s Venice is the most beautiful city built by man


 
The city stretches across 118 islands in the swamps of a small Venetian lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. Tmtdallakeh and salt along the shoreline between the mouths of the rivers Po (south) and the Piave (north). The estimated population of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the municipality all of Venezia; and approximately 62000 in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico.); And 176.000 in Terraferma (Mainland), mostly frazione large Mestre and Marghera; live 31, 000 in the other islands in the lake

The Republic of Venice was a naval force main during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades, and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as the center is very important for trade (especially silk, grain and spice trade) and art since the thirteenth century until the end of the seventeenth century. Venice is also famous for music, especially music, opera, and ancient and, the most famous children in this area is Antonio Vivaldi
 
There are no historical records dealt with the assets of the gun directly, but the available evidence has led many historians to agree that the indigenous people of the city of Venice consisted of a number of refugees Romanian cities such as Padua and Aquileia and Altino and Concordia (Bertogerwao modern) who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic invasions and Huns to some sources, the late Romanian revealed the existence of fishermen on the islands in the marshy lakes of origin. They were referred to as lacunae incola (lake-dwellers

Starting in 166-168, and Almarcomanyen Quadi destroyed the main center in the region, and the current Oderzo. The ousted Romanian defenses again in the fifth century in early before the Visigoths and, after nearly 50 years later, by the Huns led by Attila. In his last and most enduring was that of the Lombards in 568. This left the Eastern Empire ROMANIAN a small strip of coast in the Veneto current, and administrative bodies and the major religious hegemony transferred to this remaining. Has been building new ports, including those in the Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon.
 
And has been away Byzantine domination in central and northern Italy in the later to a large extent by the conquest of the Exarchate of Ravenna in 751 by Aistulf. During this period, was the headquarters of the local Byzantine governor (the "duke / dux", later "doge") is located in Malamocco. Settlement across the islands in the lake probably Zdadt of missions with the opening of the Lombard territory of the Byzantine

 At 775-776, the establishment of the headquarters Diocese Olivolo (Helipolis). In the era of the Duke of Agnello Particiaco (811-827) were transferred from the Duchy of seats to the island of Rialto Malamocco very secure (Rivoalto "High Shore"), the current location of Venice. The monastery of St. Zachary and the first Algosraldoqa and the Cathedral of St. Mark, as well as the walled defense (civitatis murus) between Olivolo and Rialto was built at a later time. The black winged that may be the last in Venice is the symbol of Saint Mark
 
In 828, raised in the prestige of the new city of theft of the relics of St. Mark from Alexandria, which is placed in the new church. As the headquarters of the Patriarchate was moved to Rialto. While continuing to develop the society as it wanted to Byzantine power, it led to the growth of autonomy and independence at the end of the day

 Located on the Adriatic Sea, Venice traded with the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world on a large scale. By the late thirteenth century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all Europe. At the height of its power and wealth, he was a sailor holding 36.000 3.300 ship, controlled the trade in the Mediterranean Sea. During this time, the largest families of Venice vied with each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of artists, the largest and most talented.
 
  The city was ruled by the Great Council, which was composed of members of the most influential families in Venice. The Great Council appointed all public officials, elected by the Senate from 200 to 300 individuals. Because this group was too large to be efficient management, the Council of Ten (also called the Ducal Council or the rule), was dominated by a large part of the city administration. One member of the Great Council was elected "doge", or duke, the ceremonial head of the city, which usually remains on the title until his death

And the structure of the Venetian government similar in some ways to the republican system of ancient Rome, with the election of the President of the executive power (the Doge), a Senate, such as a gathering of nobles, and turned into a mass of citizens with limited political power, which was originally on the power to grant or to abstain from the approval of all candidates for the newly Doge. The Church and various private property restricted to military service, despite the lack of Persia possession within the city itself.
 
  The Cavalieri di San Marco was the only system of chivalry in Venice, no citizen could accept or join the system without the consent of a foreign government. Venice remained a republic independent throughout that period, politics and the military were separate, but when it is in some cases, the Doge personally heads the military. And considered the war a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the production of the city in the past large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, at a later time, and its dependence on foreign mercenaries, because the ruling class was preoccupied with commerce

Buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wood piles, which were imported from the mainland. (Under water, in the absence of oxygen, wood does not decay was petrified as a result of the continued flow of water rich in minerals and around and through it, so that the stone-like structure.) Piles penetrate the layer of softer sand and mud until they reach the layer is much more difficult from the pressure of the mud.
 
  Piles of wood had been cut off in the holy from the western part of Slovenia, which led to the barren land in the region today called Kras, and in two regions of Croatia, Lika and Gorski Kotar (resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit). Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. Institutions rest on the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. And buildings are often threatened by a wave of floods during the nights of pay from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring.
 
Six hundred years ago, Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting all the major rivers flowing into the lake, and thus preventing sediment from filling the area surrounding the city. This is creating a deeper lake

During the twentieth century, when many of the sinking of artesian wells and sank in the vicinity of the lake to draw water for local industry, Venice began to subside. It was realized that extraction of groundwater is the cause. The process of this sinking has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (so-called Acqua alta, "high water") that creep to a rise a few centimeters because of the sidewalks, and regularly after certain tides. In many old houses the former staircases and used by people to unload goods now flooded, making the ground floor uninhabitable. And many Venetians resorted to the upper floors for the continuation of their lives

Shown some recent studies that the city is no longer sinking, but this has not been confirmed yet, and therefore, in a state of alert has not been canceled. In May / Mai 2003, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi inaugurated the project Moss (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico), an experimental model to evaluate the performance of inflatable gates, the idea is to develop a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the bottom of the sea at the three entrances of the lake. When the tide is expected to rise above 110 centimeters, will fill the pontoons of the mass of air and water received from the Adriatic Sea. This engineering work is scheduled to be completed by the year 2011.

 Some experts say that the best way to protect Venice is to physically lift the city to rise further above sea level, by pumping water into the soil under the city this way, some hope, could rise above sea level, and protected for hundreds of years, and eventually this project Moses may not be necessary (and will, and controversial, change the patterns of the tides in the lagoon, damaging some wildlife). Another point about the system of "lifting" it would be permanent; Moss Project is, by nature, a temporary system: it is expected to protect Venice for only a hundred years

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