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الاثنين، 27 يونيو، 2011

Tourism in Alexandria / Egypt

Alexandria, known as the bride of the Mediterranean, is the second largest city in Egypt after Cairo, and is the second capital of Egypt and the ancient capital of it, lies along the Mediterranean coast length of about 70 km north-west of the Nile Delta, bordered to the north, the Mediterranean Sea, and Lake Mariot south to km 71 on the Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, bordered to the east of Abu Qir Bay and the city of Edco, and the region of Sidi Krir west to 36.30 km on the road to Alexandria - Matrouh highway.
 
Of Alexandria, fraught with many distinctive features, as there is the largest seaport in Egypt is the port of Alexandria, which serves about 80% of the total imports and exports and also includes the new Library of Alexandria, which can accommodate more than 8 million book also includes many museums and archaeological sites such as Bey Citadel and the column Pompey and others, has a population of Alexandria, about 4,123,869 people (according to 2006 census working in commercial activities and industrial and agricultural. divided Alexandria to six administrative districts: the neighborhood park, East District, Central District, west district, neighborhood, customs, Amriya, contain these neighborhoods in 16 sections of 129 Xiahe addition to the major cities have a city such as the Burj Al Arab and the city of new Borg El Arab

 Began work on the establishment of Alexandria by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. M by filling part of the water separating the island and extended to the coast of the main called the "Pharos" the port of old, and a small village called "Raktos" or "Racodh" surrounded by small villages other as well as the spread between the sea and Lake Mariot, and taken by Alexander the Great and his successors as the capital of Egypt for nearly a thousand years, until the Islamic conquest of Egypt by Amr Ibn El-Aas year 641,
 
  Known Alexandria in history through a variety of attractions such as the ancient Library of Alexandria, which included more than 700,000 volumes, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which were considered of the seven wonders in order to rise the massive up to about 35 meters, and has been the beacon list until destroyed by a powerful earthquake in 1307

At the beginning of the fourth century BC, were not of Alexandria, only a small village called "Raktos" or "Racodh" surrounded by small villages, he says archaeologists it might have been considered a strategic location for the expulsion of tribes that had attacked from time to time from the western side of the Nile Valley or perhaps the "Raktos" just a small village dependent on fishing only, and along the coast of the main village of the island are called "Pharos" has a port that serves the island and coastal villages together.

  At that time Egypt was under Persian occupation since the fall of the Pharaohs and the family Thirty in 343 BC. M, and was not Egypt only under the occupation of the Persians, it was the Levant, Iraq is under occupation, in return for the power of the Persian force was growing rapidly, and began confrontation between them in the spring of 334 BC. m, and continued fighting between them, until Alexander the Great entered the city of Tyre, and then to Gaza to enter Egypt completed in 333 BC. m

After Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and expelled the Persians of them, he was received by the Egyptians welcomed because of the cruelty that they were treated under the Persian occupation and to assure Alexander the Great that he came to Egypt as a friend and ally, not an invading colonists, went to visit the temple of the god Amun, the God of Egypt most of the time, he went to the temple in the oasis of Siwa, and his priests conducted rituals of adoption to become Alexander the Great, son of the god Amun, and the title later the son of Amon on his way to the temple over the village, the fishermen were called "Racodh"

  Admired the place and decided to build a city bearing his name to be the focal point between Egypt and Greece, a city Alexandria (Ancient Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ κατ 'Αἴγυπτον; and Greek, modern: Αλεξάνδρεια), and the reign built to the engineer "Dinoqratis," which built on the pattern of the Greek cities, and coordinated so that lying directly above the streets of horizontal on the streets of vertical and after several months, leaving Alexander Egypt heading towards the east to complete the rest of his conquests, he opened Persia, but his ambitions did not stop at this, but marched with his army until he reached India, Central Asia, while Alexander was a surprise the disease, which did not last long pit where death after ten days, Monday and did not exceed thirty years of age
   Characterized Alexandria in the opening lines militarization of a city of Jund al-Greeks, and then turned into days of the Ptolemaic Greeks to the royal city parks and columns are white marble and its streets, the widening and turned then to the capital of Egypt, and became one of the capitals of science and the arts after the shad the Ptolemies a number of major milestones of the lines of its library large which is the first research institute real history, the lighthouse, which has become one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, and was overlooking the sea and the south-east of the eastern port, which was called the port great; when compared with the port of Heraklion at the Abu Qir the mouth of a tributary of the Nile old disappeared, and now the mouth of the Nile receded to become a distance of 20 km at the Rashid Abu Qir

Underwent city nominally Roman year 80 BC. M, according to the desire of Ptolemy X, and continued it this way nearly a century before it fell, however, Julius Caesar year 47 BC., When taken advantage of Rome to the conflict and civil war between Ptolemy XIII and his advisers and his sister Cleopatra seventh, and after several battles victorious Caesar was killed her brother, and thus was able to Cleopatra monopoly by virtue of Egypt, and one of the views of some historians have been burning the Library of Alexandria's famous at that time in a conflict of Julius Caesar with Ptolemy XIII city fell to the commander, "Octavius​​," which later became Emperor "August" on August 1 year 30 BC. m, and thus, Egypt became a Roman province. Alexandria remained the largest city in the empire after Rome ROMANIAN large capital

 , And earlier the Romans on the work of many of the reforms it, and they have to renew and re-digging the old canal which linked the River Nile and the Red Sea for trade, as well as gave the Romans to the Jews in Alexandria, and who they represent an essential part of the demographics of the city, many freedoms and allowed them to manage their affairs own but all that did not stop the rebel movements and tension in the city, which describe a book of ancient people as "the most desirable in the revolution and fight any people last," it is a rebellion of the Jews in 116 AD, and continuing tension between Jews and Greece on the old issues, as well as protest Alexandrians in general the Roman rule, which resulted in the 215 meters and following the visit of the Roman Emperor to Alexandria to the killing of more than twenty thousand secondary because of a poem spoken in the spelling of the man.

However, it is the most important reasons for confusion is that the world has witnessed one of the most important events in history, the birth of Christianity, which coincided with the beginning of Roman rule in Egypt, where the new religion began to attract a lot of Egyptians, urging them to renounce idolatry and the worship of God, has begun a new era of persecution where the Rome wants to impose the worship of the emperor and the pagan worship as well as the Egyptians enormous tsunami wave hit the city on July 21, 365 years due to an earthquake near the island of Crete, and the resulting devastation and destruction of two large
 
Gained Christianity a large force, despite all the conflicts in the face of the religion of the rest of the Egyptians from the pagans, particularly in the reign of Emperor Theodosius the Great (378-395 AD), who issued a decree nullifying acts of worship pagan, was held Patriarch of Alexandria, Theophilus (385-412 AD) its intention to implement the decree Imperial accurately and packages have been was assisted by his followers and the troops of Emperor, was destroyed a number of pagan temples and some of them turned to the other churches such as the Temple Sarabium place of the god Serapis, in the year 391 AD which was built overlooking the two churches
 .Active trade in Alexandria during the Islamic period, was also building a new wall of the city, and a delegation to a lot of scientists from the likes of Imam Shatby and of preserving the ancestral, and others who influenced the scientific movement of the city and monuments left by the first phase of the open tomb and Mosque of Abu Darda ', one of the companions of Prophet Muhammad , in the spice dealers who participated in the conquest of Egypt.
 
Suffered the city for several strong earthquakes in 956 and then 1303 then 1323, led to the crash lighthouse famous was left with only the foundation stone was built by the Bey Citadel in the middle of the fifteenth century AD also suffered Alexandria attacks crusade, most recently in October 1365 has suffered the killings of without discrimination between a Muslim and a Christian, looting and hit the mosques, but that in 1480 the Mamluk Sultan Bey built a fortress for the city to protect it in the same location as the lighthouse and now known as "Bey Citadel in Alexandria, where they enjoyed his time very carefully

Alexandria became since Mohammad Ali assumed power and the past hundred and fifty years following the most important port in the Mediterranean and an important center of foreign trade and home to residents of multi-ethnic, languages ​​and cultures, and under the rule of the successors of Muhammad Ali continued to Alexandria in the economic growth witnessed during the reign of Khedive Ismail particular attention similar to the attention given planning the city of Cairo, he established the streets and new neighborhoods were lighting neighborhoods and streets gas lamps by a foreign company was established by a private party to take care of the organization of streets and carry out health and hygiene and maintenance in, and developed a network of sewage and storm water drainage,

 Alexandria is characterized by a mild climate, with the prevailing Mediterranean climate which is characterized by hot, dry Besifa Staúh and wet and mild and rainy. Limited winter in Alexandria months December, January and February and maximum temperature ranging between the 12 and 18 degrees Celsius, and Alexandria are in this chapter to the many severe thunderstorms, hail and heavy rain.

  The summer in the Alexandria, claimed, through the months of June, July, and August and range from the temperature to be between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius and is characterized by the summer of Alexandria, drought and high humidity, while spring and autumn Viatbran the best time to visit the city, and which do not exceed maximum temperature for 22 ° C

The population of Alexandria, according to the census of 2006, approximately 4,123,869 people, of whom 2,106,350 people, males, and 2,017,519 people, females and is characterized by its population diversity between the workers and peasants, nomads, traders, fishermen, employees and others, and diversified economic activity in the city between the agricultural, industrial, commercial and financial

 Most Alaxanderanyen embrace Islam, the method of the Sunnis and the community, Islam has spread widely in the big city after the opening Amr ibn al-Aas, even in the seventh century was dominated by Christianity that existed before this. Alexandria is characterized by embracing many of the schools, religious facilities and hundreds of Islamic mosques large, perhaps the most famous mosques that are concentrated in the neighborhood of customs, where the number of mosques around 80 mosques.
Alexandria tourist landmarks

Column Pompey
The column masts of the most famous monuments in Alexandria, built on a hill between the door of Sidra current Muslim cemetery known as the "cemetery" column and the plateau Komelshkafah archaeological sites, and a length of about 27 meters. Column was held in honor of the Emperor Diocletian in the third century AD, the last remaining vestiges from the Temple of Serapeum Bustumus the residence of the emperor is the highest monument in the world

 ,It was said that this column dedicate to Christianity after its victory in Alexandria, the body of the column is a one-piece, with an overall height to him, including the rule about 26.85 meters in the west side of the column bases can access them peace under the ground and there are two statues are similar to the Sphinx are made of rose granite due their history to the era of Ptolemy VI
 
Bey Citadel
Located Bey Citadel in the sea most of West Alexandria, and was built in the old site of the Lighthouse of Alexandria, and which was destroyed years 702 e impact of the devastating earthquake that happened in the reign of Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad began Sultan Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr Bey build this castle in the year 882 AH and finished construction year 884 The reason for his interest in Alexandria, the large number of direct threats to Egypt by the Ottoman Empire, which threatened the entire Arab region

Roman Theatre
Roman theater is located in the area of ​​Kom El-city center, is one of the effects of the Roman era have been his residence at the beginning of the fourth century AD. Roman is the only theater in Egypt discovered the site accidentally while removing dirt to search for the tomb of Alexander the Great by the Polish mission in 1960 called the name of the archaeologists discovered the Roman theater at the marble stairs, but much controversy about the function of this building took archaeological
Mined in about 30 years old

New Library of Alexandria
Is the Library of Alexandria of the latest and most prominent monuments of cultural rights in Egypt and the world was created in order to return the glories of ancient Library of Alexandria which was a beacon to the world for nearly two thousand years library is located on the Mediterranean coast in the Shatby, and has more than 8 million books and current library is the revival of the library old and which were the largest libraries of its age, and believed that Ptolemy II is of an order founded in the early third century BC, and the number of books which are contained in a folder has reached 700.000

 Komelshkafah ancient tombs
Located graves Komelshkafah in Komelshkafah southern district of Mina onions, and one of the most important tombs of the city, and named the region with this name because of the many remains of pottery and stone quarries that were piling up in this place The importance of the cemetery due to expansion and the many decorations and complexity of planning, and is one of the clearest examples of overlap of Pharaonic art Roman art in the city, and wonderful architecture Ganasais models, and found the cemetery by accident on September 28, 1900 Although the exploration had begun in this area since 1892.
 
Alexandria National Museum
Is a museum of Alexandria, located in St. Fouad in the city center, featuring more than 1,800 artifacts representing all eras witnessed by the city from Roman times to the modern era, the museum is a former palace of a timber merchants wealthy in the city, he created the style of architecture Italian, and the sale in 1954 the U.S. Consulate and was bought by the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt $ 12 million Egyptians, who around the turn to the national museum of the city, and the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak inaugurated on September 1, 2003

    .Greco-Roman Museum
A Museums effects in the city of Alexandria, inaugurated by Khedive Abbas Helmi II in the October 17, 1892, museum displays a wide range of effects found in Alexandria and surrounding areas, most of which the effects of the Ptolemaic and Roman times subsequent to him, and particularly since the emergence of Alexandria of the third century BC to the third century AD
 
Royal Jewelry Museum
Jewelry is a museum displaying the royal family that ruled Egypt. Built the palace in 1919 in the Zezenia area is about 4185 square meters, and was the property of the princess Fatima Zahra one of the princesses of the royal family, has been designed according to the model buildings of the European nineteenth century turned the palace into a museum of jewelry property in 1986, which included a wide range of jewelry and antique gold of the royal family belonging to the upper in 1805, including rare antiques from the era of Mohamed Ali Pasha, Farouk I even

· Palace Park: This is one of the royal palaces in the city, built by Khedive Abbas Helmi II in 1892, the total area and the gardens about 370 acres and consists of several buildings, one of the royal palaces of past and houses a museum's holdings of property, and includes in its courtyard palaces are the Palace Salamlek Palace harem
· Ras El Teen Palace: the oldest palaces in the city, one of the historical monuments and archaeological sites in Alexandria, saw the palace the end of Dynasty upper in Egypt when he saw the deposed King Farouk, and leaving him to exile in Italy on board the royal yacht unguarded, and the Palace is now one of a presidential palaces in Egypt
One shortcoming of the other city: Antoniadis Palace, the Palace of Safa