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الأربعاء، 29 يونيو، 2011

Suez Canal / Egypt

Historical record that the state made ​​its first artificial canal through its territory to link the Mediterranean red by the Nile and its branches, and the first one set up by Senusret III and the kings of Egypt opened in 1874 BC.. Then neglected and reopened several times:
- Channel King Senusret III in 1874 BC. M
- Canal City I 1310 BC. M
- Channel Nackhaw in 610 BC. M
- Canal houses the first year 510 BC. M
- Channel Ptolemy II in 285 BC. M
- Romans channel (Rajan) in 117 BC. M
- Channel of the faithful in 640 AD.
- Suez Canal was the first canal linking the Red Sea and Mediterranean directly and opened for international navigation on November 17, 1869.
- Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956.
- Channel 5 were closed and most dangerous of times, most recently because of the circumstances of June 1967 "and continued closed for 8 years."
- The re-opening the channel for navigation in the June 5, 1975.

 Characteristics of the navigation channel
Lengths:
- Total length 190.250 km
- From the luminous buoy to Port Said lighthouse 19.500 km
- From the southern entrance to wait for 8.500 km
- From Port Said to Ismailia 78.500 km
- From Ismailia to Port Tawfik 83.750 km
- Double the length of the parts of 78 km
- Page display water (north / south) 280 / 345 m
- The width between the buoys (north / south) 195 / 215 m
- 22.5 m depth of the channel
- Depth of unauthorized passage of ships of 62 feet
- An area of ​​water sector M 4800/4350
- Maximum deadweight tons, 210.000
- The speed limit for tankers loaded with 13 km / h
- The speed limit of 14 km the empty vector / h

Total length 190.250 km - from the luminous buoy to Port Said lighthouse 19.500 km - from the southern entrance to wait for 8.500 km - from Port Said to Ismailia 78.500 km - from Ismailia to Port Tawfik 83.750 km - the length of 78 km dual parts - page display water (North / South ) 280/345 m - width between the buoys (north / south) 195 / 215 m - 22.5 m channel depth - depth of unauthorized passage of ships of 62 feet - an area of ​​water sector m 4800/4350 - the maximum 210.000 deadweight tons - the speed limit of tankers loaded with 13 km / h - the speed limit of 14 km the empty vector / h

 Features of navigation in the channel

The longest canal in the world without locks.
- Navigation day and night.
- The rate of accidents in which very small when measured against other channels.
- Can be expanded and deepened at any time according to the evolution of sizes of ships.
- The introduction of electronic surveillance of navigation systems, including advanced radar.
- Has become the channel allow the passage of supertankers, a blank

The impact of the channel on the World Trade
- The distance between the port of Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and the port of Constanza (Black Sea) 11 771 miles from the Cape of Good Hope, while the the distance 1698 miles only through the Suez Canal, thus fulfilling the channel and saving in distance is about 86%.
- The proportion of savings in the distance between Tokyo in Japan, and the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands 23% compared with the Cape of Good Hope.
- Use the Suez Canal in the transfer of 7% of world seaborne trade and 35% is transferred to and from the ports of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, while 20% to and from the ports of India and Southeast Asia, and 39% is transferred to and from the Far East

Navigation system in the channel
- First: it starts from Port Said hrs 100.
- The second of Port Said and starts hrs 700.
- The third and start of the Suez transit time 600.
- Counseling is mandatory in all vessels transiting the Canal, and the two 4 guidance counselors on each vessel.
- The speed limit for vessels in transit between 13 and 14 km per hour, depending on the type and tonnage, except in the southern sector The speed of between 11 and 14 km at the direction of the tidal stream and speed